Please review our list of publications below for the information you need. If you can't find what you are looking for, send your questions directly to our Extension Experts.
|24 Ways to Kill a Tree||
There is a tremendous diversity of herbaceous perennial plant species being grown for both the retail and landscaping sectors of the industry. Because of the diversity in species grown, there is much more unknown about perennials production than is known. Growth regulation is of particular concern. In production settings, as well as in retail locations, herbaceous perennials grown in pots tend to stretch and become leggy or simply overgrow their pots before their scheduled market date. These plants are less marketable, and harder to maintain. Many growers resort to pruning, which is not only costly in terms of labor, but also delays plant production two to four weeks.
|May 1, 2009||430-210|
|A Checklist for Efficient Log Trucking||May 1, 2009||420-094|
|A Landowner's Guide to Wildlife Abundance through Forestry||May 1, 2009||420-138|
|A Logger's Guide to Harvest Planning||May 1, 2009||420-088|
|BCAP Biomass Crop Assistance Program||
The Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) is part of the latest Farm Bill to assist forestland owners and operators with matching payments for eligible material by a qualified Biomass Conversion Facility. The objective of this program is to stimulate the production of biomass based energy throughout the United States.
|Jan 8, 2010||3001-1431|
|Balsam Woolly Adelgid||Jun 16, 2010||3006-1452|
|Boxelder bug, Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus||Jan 24, 2011||3101-1525|
|Calibrating Hand-held and Backpack Sprayers for Applying Pesticides||
Hand-held and backpack sprayers are inexpensive tools used to apply pesticides on small acreages. Home gardens, yards, small orchards, and Christmas tree plantations are examples of areas that often require pesticide applications to protect them from weeds, insects, and diseases. Effective pest control depends on applying the proper amount of pesticide. This can only be done if the spray equipment is calibrated accurately.
|Sep 9, 2014||456-502 (ANR-93P)|
|Characteristics of Common Western Virginia Trees||Dec 15, 2014||420-351 (ANR-118NP)|
|Coloring Christmas Trees Before Harvest||May 1, 2009||420-638|
|Consider Logging Residue Needs for BMP Implementation When Harvesting Biomass for Energy||
Utilization of woody biomass for energy has increased
|Aug 7, 2014||ANR-108NP|
|Dealing with Timber Theft||
Forestland can provide countless hours of recreational benefits as well as an important source of income. Many landowners take careful steps to ensure that their property is managed to maximize the benefits they receive. However, all of this work can be easily eradicated by one of Virginia’s most dreaded forest pests: timber thieves.
|Jan 21, 2015||420-136(AREC-107P)|
|Economics of Producing an Acre of White Pine Christmas Trees||May 1, 2009||420-081|
|Effectiveness of Skid Trail Closure Techniques. Forest Operations Research Highlights||
Protection of water quality is a critical component of forest harvesting operations. Virginia’s silvicultural water quality law (§10.1-1181.1 through 10.1-1181.7) prohibits excessive sedimentation of streams as a result of silvicultural operations. Virginia’s logging businesses invest substantial resources implementing BMPs to protect water quality. The Virginia Depart- ment of Forestry (VDOF) is responsible for enforcing this law and inspects all logging operations to ensure protection of water quality. BMP guidelines offer mul- tiple possible options for practices to minimize erosion and sedimentation and protect water quality. Select- ing the most appropriate BMP will depend on specific site conditions, as well as resources available on-site for implementing BMPs. However, research results on BMP implementation can help guide decisions related to BMP implementation for protecting water quality.
|Aug 7, 2014||ANR-109NP|
|Effectiveness of Temporary Stream Crossing Closure Techniques Forest Operations Research Highlights||Aug 8, 2014||ANR-110NP|
|Emerald Ash Borer||Feb 7, 2014||HORT-69NP|
|Emerald Ash Borer||
Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire
Plants Attacked: Emerald ash borer (EAB) attacks all species of ash trees that grow in Virginia. Only Asian species of ash trees have shown any resistance to this pest.
|May 1, 2009||2904-1290|
|Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners||Sep 4, 2014||ENTO-76NP|
|Farm Tractor Logging for Woodlot Owners||May 1, 2009||420-090|
|Forest Harvesting in Virginia, Characteristics of Virginia’s Logging Operations||
Virginia’s forests are a vital resource, providing multiple benefits for the
|Feb 10, 2012||ANR-5|
|Forest Landowner’s Guide To The Measurement Of Timber And Logs||
As a forest landowner interested in selling timber, you are naturally interested in the price you will receive
|Dec 15, 2014||420-085 (ANR-120P)|
|Guide to Threatened and Endangered Species on Private Lands In Virginia||Oct 5, 2010||420-039|
|Hemlock Woolly Adelgid||Jun 11, 2010||3006-1451|
|Introduction to Growing Christmas Trees in Virginia||May 1, 2009||420-080|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species Identification and Management||May 1, 2009||420-320|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima)||May 1, 2009||420-322|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)||
Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830. It was originally planted for wildlife habitat, shelterbelts, and mine reclamation, but has escaped cultivation. It is dispersed most frequently by birds and other wildlife, which eat the berries.
|Dec 3, 2014||420-321 (ANR-123P)|
|Invasive Exotic Plant Species: Honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.)||Jan 20, 2015||420-323(ANR-124P)|
|Investing in Sustainable Forestry; A Guide for Virginia’s Forest Landowners||May 18, 2011||420-186|
|Lean Inventory Management in the Wood Products Industry: Examples and Applications||Sep 28, 2010||420-148|
|Managing Wildlife Damage: Snakes||Aug 26, 2010||420-021|
|Measuring Site Index||
Site index (SI) is a measurement commonly used by foresters to describe the productivity of a site. Typically this measurement is used to describe sites growing well-stocked even-aged forests. Site index is the average height of the dominant1 and codominant2 trees on the site, at a given age (base age). Typically, the base age for hardwoods and white pine in Virginia is 50 years, while the base age for loblolly pine is 25 years. For example, a SI of 75, base age 50, means that the average height of the dominant and codominant trees on a site will be 75 feet when they are 50 years old (SI50=75). The higher the SI, the higher the site productivity (trees will grow faster than on a site with a lower SI).
|Dec 3, 2014||2812-1028 (ANR-125NP)|
|Measuring Standing Trees and Logs||
Timber may be sold as stumpage (trees before they are cut) or as harvested products (sawlogs, veneer logs, or pulpwood). If trees are sold as harvested products, the sale is customarily based upon measured volume. Trees marketed as stumpage may be sold by boundary, a measured estimate of stand volume, or individual tree measurements.
Standing-tree and log volumes can be measured using a scale stick designed to fit Virginia timber conditions. With it you can measure the diameter of a tree, the number of 16-foot logs or the length of pulpwood in a tree, and the diameter and length of sawlogs. Tables printed on the stick provide for varying board-foot volumes for standing trees and for sawlogs of varying lengths.
|Jul 14, 2009||420-560|
|Moving Toward Sustainable Forestry: Strategies for Forest Landowners||Dec 15, 2014||420-144 (AREC-108NP)|
|One-Year Health, Mortality, and Growth in Southeast Virginia of Shortleaf Pine From Three Sources||Apr 22, 2013||ANR-28P|
|Options for Clearing Land: Pasture Establishment for Horses||
You have considered the ramifications of clearing your land (To Clear or Not To Clear – That Is the Question, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 465-340), and you have decided to go forward. Now this publication addresses a question many new landowners ask: How do I clear land?
|May 1, 2009||465-341|
Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.
|Dec 11, 2014||2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)|
|Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2014||Feb 3, 2014||456-016 (ENTO-37P)|
|Pest Management Guide: Horticultural and Forest Crops, 2014||Jan 28, 2014||456-017 (ENTO-38P)|
|Pesticide Applicator Manuals||Nov 17, 2011||VTTP-2||
|Pine Bark Adelgid: Hemiptera Adelgidae: Pineus strobi (Htg.)||Aug 5, 2009||2907-1402|
|Pine Tortoise Scale, Hemiptera: Coccidae, Toumeyella numismaticum||Jan 25, 2011||3101-1529|
|Poison Ivy: Leaves of three? Let it be!||
Those who experience the blisters, swelling, and extreme itching that result from contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens), or poison sumac (Toxicodendron vernix) learn to avoid these pesky plants. Although poison oak and poison sumac do grow in Virginia, poison ivy is by far the most common. This publication will help you identify poison ivy, recognize the symptoms of a poison ivy encounter, and control poison ivy around your home.
|May 1, 2009||426-109|
|Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests||Feb 26, 2010||460-143|
|Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses||Feb 19, 2010||460-124|
|Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land||Sep 2, 2009||460-116|
|Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land||
Most coal-bearing lands in the Appalachian region were forested prior to mining. The region’s forests are predominantly upland oak-hickory and Appalachian mixed hardwoods. These forests provide many benefits to landowners and the public. Solid wood and paper products are perhaps the most tangible benefits, but a predictable flow of high-quality water from forested watersheds into regional streams is another vital benefit provided by the region’s forests. Forests also fix carbon from the atmosphere, provide wildlife food and cover, and provide recreational opportunities and an aesthetically pleasing environment.
|Mar 30, 2011||460-123|
|Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses||Sep 29, 2009||460-141|
|Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining||
This publication summarizes research on the impacts of reclamation practices on re-establishment of native Appalachian forest ecosystems and describes practices
|Feb 25, 2010||460-140|
|Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land||Dec 4, 2009||460-138|
|Principles of Regeneration Silviculture in Virginia||Aug 25, 2009||420-405|
|Redheaded Pine Sawfly||Jun 16, 2010||3006-1453|
|Safe and Efficient Practices for Trucking Unmanufactured Forest Products||May 8, 2009||420-310|
|Selection and Care of Christmas Trees||May 1, 2009||420-641|
|Shortleaf Pine: An Option for Virginia Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-165|
|Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader's Guide||
This handbook is designed to accompany the Skidder Safety and Efficiency training DVD available from Virginia Cooperative Extension www.ext.vt.edu, Forest Resources Association www. forestresources.org, and the Virginia SHARP Logger Program www.sharplogger.vt.edu. The following pages contain a transcription of the video narrative, along with suggestions for discussion topics.
|May 26, 2009||420-122|
|Species for Christmas Tree Planting in Virginia||May 1, 2009||420-082|
|Sustainable Forestry: A Guide for Virginia Forest Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-139|
|The ABCs of Cost Allocation in the Wood Products Industry: Applications in the Furniture Industry||Sep 17, 2010||420-147|
|The Role of Logging Business Owners in Forest Certification||
Many forest products companies and landowners participate in forest certification programs. Forest certification programs set standards for sustainable forest management and verify that they are being met. Certification programs can demonstrate to consumers that certified forest products come from trees that were grown and harvested sustainably. Participants in certification programs commit to meeting sustainable forest management standards and are periodically audited by a third party to verify compliance.
|May 22, 2013||ANR-51NP|
|To Certify or Not? An Important Question for Virginia’s Family Forest Owners||
Family forest owners ask themselves many questions about their properties, such as if and when to cut timber, what types of wildlife to manage for, how to control exotic invasive species, and how to protect water quality. An increasingly common question that forest owners ask is whether they should certify their forests.
This publication can help forest owners determine if certification is an appropriate option. It defines certification, as well as its benefits and costs, and describes three common certification programs in Virginia. It also covers how family forest owners can begin the certification process, lists sources of additional information, and answers frequently asked questions.
|Sep 9, 2013||ANR-50P|
|To Clear or Not To Clear -- That Is the Question||
There are several reasons why someone might want to clear woodland. Pasture for livestock, space for horseback riding, creating a vista, making space for a garden, increasing lawn size, or establishing a field for hay or other crops are but a few. Regardless of the reason, it is important to carefully evaluate all options and thoroughly understand the ramifications.
|May 1, 2009||465-340|
|Tree Crops For Marginal Farmland -- Christmas Trees||
This publication describes the most effective practices used to grow Christmas trees in the southern United States and the cost of those practices. It includes a financial analysis with typical costs and expected returns.
Only eastern white pine and Virginia pines are discussed in this guide. But other species, such as Scotch pine and Fraser fir, also can be grown profitably in some locations in the South. To use this publication to best advantage, read it straight through. Take special note of the cultural practices described and their estimated costs. Think about potential markets for the harvest. Read how to evaluate your potential investment, and think about the other benefits of tree crops. Read the case studies to get a better idea of how these investments can be evaluated. To conduct a financial analysis of your own situation, carefully estimate all the production costs, then take your estimates to the local Extension agent or farm management agent for assistance.
|May 1, 2009||446-605|
|Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland: Loblolly Pine||
The Tree Crops for Marginal Farmland Project seeks to provide farmers with basic information about growing and marketing tree crops. Tree crops have many advantages for farmers with marginal or unused land. The cost of inputs is relatively low, economic returns may be quite competitive with alternatives, and there are important environmental benefits.
There are five introductory guides in this series, and each has an accompanying videotape. They provide information on a specific tree crop which can be grown on small or medium-sized tracts of marginal or unused farmland. All these crops are common to areas of the southeastern United States, but their economic potential should be investigated by farmers.
|Jun 23, 2009||446-609|
|Trees and Shrubs for Acid Soils||
The trees and shrubs on your new home site are growing poorly, so you take samples to the Extension office and the agent suggests a soil test. Test results show that your soil has a pH of 4.5, which is rated as strongly acid. The agent suggests you either take corrective action to raise the pH or grow different plants.
|May 1, 2009||430-027|
|Trees and Shrubs for Overhead Utility Easements||
Trees are valuable assets in commercial, private, and public landscapes. Trees add aesthetic beauty, modify and enhance the environment, serve architectural and engineering functions, and increase property and community economic values. These same trees that enhance landscapes, however, are a major challenge for utility companies. Most people have grown accustomed to reliable, uninterrupted electric, telephone and cable service in their homes and offices. Unfortunately, trees are one of the major causes of power outages in areas of overhead utility lines due to direct tree contact with lines, or to trees or tree limbs falling on the lines.
|May 1, 2009||430-029|
|Trees and Shrubs that Tolerate Saline Soils and Salt Spray Drift||
Concentrated sodium (Na), a component of salt, can damage plant tissue whether it contacts above or below ground parts. High salinity can reduce plant growth and may even cause plant death. Care should be taken to avoid excessive salt accumulation from any source on tree and shrub roots, leaves or stems. Sites with saline (salty) soils, and those that are exposed to coastal salt spray or paving de-icing materials, present challenges to landscapers and homeowners.
|May 1, 2009||430-031|
|Trees and Water||Jul 30, 2012||ANR-18NP|
|Trees for Parking Lots and Paved Areas||
Parking lots and paved areas are essential urban features that tend to be unsightly in their basic form. Municipal ordinances often mandate specific amounts of parking for different types of commercial or residential land use, as well as landscaping for these parking areas. Landscaping in and around parking lots and pavement improves appearance, prevents soil erosion, and reduces carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Planted areas also reduce storm water drainage problems, reduce the detrimental effects of wind and noise, and enhance human comfort by providing heat-reducing shade.
|May 1, 2009||430-028|
|Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner||
In the larval stage, both the twig girdler and twig pruner are creamy white in color and up to 2 inches in length. They look like typical roundheaded borers in that their heads and bodies are cylindrical in shape and they have legs that are reduced to very small claws. The adult twig girdler is about 5/8 inch long and has a pair of long antennae. The color is brown with irregular patches of fine gray hairs and the antennae are spines on the segments closest to the head.
|Nov 20, 2009||2911-1423|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: An Overview||May 1, 2009||420-150|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Benefits to Communities and Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-153|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities||May 1, 2009||420-152|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Water Quality||May 1, 2009||420-151|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Factors Influencing Adoption||May 1, 2009||420-154|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Planning, Establishment, and Maintenance||May 1, 2009||420-155|
|Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Resources for Virginia Landowners||May 1, 2009||420-156|
|Urban Forestry Issues||May 1, 2009||420-180|
|Value, Benefits, and Costs of Urban Trees||May 1, 2009||420-181|
|Virginia Logger Safety Checklist Booklet||
This booklet contains sample forms, sample policies, and guidelines for maintaining safety records. Formats are suggested and can be modified by each operation. Use of this booklet and completion of suggested forms will assist with OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act) requirements as related to logging operations. A list of agencies and contacts is included for additional information and consultation.
|Aug 5, 2011||3108-1592|
|Virginia Master Naturalist, Basic Training Course, Forest Ecology and Management in Virginia||Mar 21, 2013||465-315 (ANR-43NP)|
|Virginia Pine Sawfly||
Adults resemble flies yet have four wings instead of two.
|Nov 20, 2009||2911-1424|
|Wood Identification for Species Native to Virginia||Sep 24, 2013||ANR-64P|
|Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for fourteen-to eighteen-year-olds||Nov 9, 2009||388-809|
|Wood Magic: A wood science curriculum for nine to eleven year olds||Nov 9, 2009||388-807|