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Beef Cattle

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
A Characterization of Direct-Market Beef Processing and Marketing in Virginia May 11, 2009 448-123
A Characterization of Direct-Marketed Beef Production in Virginia Jul 15, 2009 448-124
Addressing the Consequences of Predator Damage to Livestock and Poultry May 1, 2009 410-030
Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle

Feed represents the largest single production expense for cattle operations. There are many different feedstuffs that can be included in rations for cattle, and there is nothing special about particular ingredients. What matters is the nutrients they provide.

May 1, 2009 400-230
Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture

Agricultural producers are under constant pressure to minimize the impact their management practices have on the environment. Although most environmental concerns related to animal agriculture have focused on water quality during the past two decades, air quality issues have become an increasing concern. Odors have been the main air quality concern related to agricultural animal production. However, ammonia emissions from livestock and poultry operations have recently received significant attention. New air quality standards that cover ammonia emissions in the United States were adopted in 1997. These regulations will have a significant impact on the future of animal production operations. The purpose of this publication is to provide an overview of ammonia production associated with animal agriculture and to explain why it is receiving greater attention from those concerned with environmental quality.

May 1, 2009 442-110
An Inventory of Beef Slaughter & Processing Facilities for Virginia Direct Marketers of Beef May 26, 2009 448-195
Anaplasmosis in Beef Cattle

Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease of cattle caused by several species of the blood parasite Anaplasma. A. marginale is the most common pathogen of cattle.

May 1, 2009 400-465
Beef Cattle Breeds and Biological Types

Worldwide there are more than 250 breeds of beef cattle. Over 60 of these breeds are present in the United States. However, a relatively small number of breeds (less than 20) constitute the majority of the genetics utilized in the U.S. for commercial beef production.

May 1, 2009 400-803
Beef Cow/Calf Herd Health Program and Calendar

It is widely agreed that prevention rather than treatment is the most economical approach to keeping disease losses low. Treatment of a disease after its onset is not always

May 1, 2009 400-007
Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows

Body condition scoring (BCS) is a useful management tool for distinguishing differences in nutritional needs of beef cows in the herd. This system uses a numeric score to estimate body energy reserves in the cow.

May 1, 2009 400-795
Calving Emergencies in Beef Cattle: Identification and Prevention

Calving difficulty, technically called dystocia, is a major cause of death loss in cow-calf herds. CHAPA (Cow-calf Health and Productivity Audit) studies indicate that dystocia is responsible for 33 percent of all calf losses and 15.4 percent of beef cattle breeding losses.

May 1, 2009 400-018
Catastrophic Livestock and Poultry Carcass Disposal Nov 19, 2013 ANR-76NP (ANR-90NP)
Cattle Identification: Freeze Branding

Individual animal identification is essential if beef producers are to properly manage animals and their production records. Yet at present, less than 50 percent of the cattle in the United States have any form of individual identification (USDA-APHIS, 1997).

May 1, 2009 400-301
Creep Feeding Beef Calves

Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf.

May 1, 2009 400-003
Crossbreeding Beef Cattle

The economic climate of today’s beef business is challenging. Commercial cow-calf producers are faced with optimizing a number of economically important traits, while simultaneously reducing costs of production in order to remain competitive. Traits such as reproduction, growth, maternal ability, and end product merit all influence productivity and profitability of the beef enterprise.

May 1, 2009 400-805
Current Strategies in Parasite Control in Virginia Beef Cattle

Many advances have been made in the field of livestock parasite control over the past few years. Because parasites decrease production, usually through decreased weight gain, advances in the control of parasites can have a direct economic impact on beef cattle operations.

May 1, 2009 400-802
Estrus Synchronization for Heifers

Developing replacement heifers is the most expensive enterprise in the cow-calf operation. You can increase returns to heifer development if the heifers calve at 24 months of age and calve early in the calving season.

May 1, 2009 400-302
Feeder and Stocker Health and Management Practices

Disease represents a major problem in most feeder and stocker settings. In some instances, outbreaks of disease can result in as much as a 30% death loss. In addition, treatment costs, feed efficiency losses, and the expenditures and labor necessary for treatment, as well as the necessity of culling animals which fail to respond to treatment, make disease loss substantial in many situations.

May 1, 2009 400-006
Fencing Materials For Livestock Systems

Good fencing protects and confines valuable livestock by presenting barriers to restrict animal movement. Barriers may be physical, psychological, or a combination of both. Physical barriers consist of enough materials of sufficient strength to prevent or discourage animals from going over, under, or through the fence. Psychological barriers depend upon inflicting pain to discourage animals from challenging a physical barrier of inferior strength.

Traditional livestock fencing materials have included barbed, woven, mesh, and electrified wire, and combinations of these materials. Board fences have also been popular. These conventional materials are still widely used and make excellent fences if properly constructed. However, new materials such as high tensile wire should also be considered when selecting fencing types.

May 1, 2009 442-131
Foot Rot in Beef Cattle

Foot rot is a common disease of cattle that can cause severe lameness and decreased weight gain. Other common names for the disease are sore foot and foul foot.

May 1, 2009 400-310
Genetic Improvement Using Young Sires With Genomic Evaluations Apr 21, 2010 404-090
Getting Started in the Cattle Business in Virginia

The beef industry consists of various segments of production. The function of this diverse industry is to produce a live beef animal from which high quality beef is ultimately delivered to the consumer. Newcomers to the business should have some understanding of the structure of the beef industry.

May 1, 2009 400-790
GnRH Based Estrus Synchronization Systems for Beef Cows

New systems of synchronizing estrus (heat) in cows for artificial insemination (AI) have been developed using commercially available Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH). These systems allow producers to artificially inseminate cows with little or no heat detection. For the first time, producers have a reliable system that results in acceptable pregnancy rates to timed AI.

May 1, 2009 400-013
Hay as Part of a Cowherd Production System

Hay is a necessary part of cow-calf production systems in Virginia. Hay is forage which is harvested and stored in a dry form when an excess of forage is available, and fed at times when forage is limited or unavailable.

May 1, 2009 400-002
Herbage Quality, Biomass, and Animal Performance of Cattle Grazing. Part I: Forage Biomass, Botanical Composition, and Nutritive Values Nov 19, 2009 418-151
Herbage Quality, Biomass, and Animal Performance of Cattle Grazing. Part II: Animal Performance Nov 19, 2009 418-152
Manure Management and Environmental Stewardship Apr 1, 2010 442-309
Marketing Cull Cows in Virginia

Cull cows and bulls represent a significant portion of the net income of Virginia beef farmers. According to the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) 2007 Market Cow and Bull Beef Quality Audit, the sale of cull beef and dairy cows and bulls accounts for as much as 20 percent of the income generated on these farms in the United States (NCBA 2007). Management and marketing strategies that enhance the value of these animals are worth considering. Research has also demonstrated that consumers are concerned about the well-being of the animals that produce the meat they consume (Bowling et al. 2008). Producers cannot ignore this trend.

Oct 20, 2009 400-761
Mycoplasma in Beef Cattle

Mycoplasma is a tiny bacterium that has a long history of causing disease in the cattle industry. Beginning in the early 2000s, it has emerged as an important entity in Virginia.

May 1, 2009 400-304
Nutrient Management for Small Farms Oct 8, 2010 442-305
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Digestive System of the Cow May 1, 2009 400-010
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Essential Nutrients, Feed Classification and Nutrient Content of Feeds

Essential nutrients are nutrients that are needed by all living things. These nutrients must either be fed or made by the animals from building blocks obtained through eating, drinking, or breathing.

May 1, 2009 400-011
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Production Cycle Nutrition and Nutrient Requirements of Cows, Pregnant Heifers and Bulls

Developing diets and feeding strategies for the cowherd is facilitated by a basic understanding of the production cycle of the cow and her changing nutrient requirements. By knowing and anticipating the changing nutritional needs of the cow, producers can plan their feeding programs and lower feed costs.

May 1, 2009 400-012
On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers Jul 31, 2013 2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)
Pinkeye in Beef Cattle

Pinkeye, also known as infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), is one of the most common diseases of beef cattle in Virginia. It is a highly contagious disease, causing inflammation of the cornea (the clear outer layer) and conjunctiva (the pink membrane lining the eyelids) of the eye.

May 1, 2009 400-750
Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage: Management and Safety Nov 19, 2009 442-308
Powell River Project - Management of Cow-Calf Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-128
Predicting Bull Fertility

Reproductive efficiency is a major determinant of cow-calf profitability. The bull’s contribution to pregnancy rates is often overlooked.

May 1, 2009 400-009
Recognition and Treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

The recognition and treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) is vital to the economic well-being of the stocker cattle producer. This disease is also known as shipping fever, or simply pneumonia.

May 1, 2009 400-008
Selecting a Treatment Technology for Manure Management May 11, 2009 442-306
Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

If you raise dairy cows, broilers, layers, turkeys, horses, beef cattle, sheep, goats, alpacas, or swine for income or a hobby, you will have to deal with the manure they produce. The amount of manure produced by the birds or animals you keep depends on their type, age, size, and diet.

Nov 19, 2009 442-307
Silo Management, Learning From The Experts Jul 9, 2014 DASC-39NP
Strategic Use of Antibiotics in Stocker Cattle

Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), or shipping fever, remains the most important health issue facing stocker-cattle producers. Despite many advances in our understanding of BRDC, vaccine technology, and new antibiotics in the last 40 years, the percentage of cattle that develop BRDC and the number that die from it have remained relatively unchanged.

May 1, 2009 400-307
Understanding Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs)

Expected progeny differences (EPDs) provide estimates of the genetic value of an animal as a parent. Specifically, differences in EPDs between two individuals of the same breed predict differences in performance between their future offspring when each is mated to animals of the same average genetic merit.

May 1, 2009 400-804
Virginia 4-H Beef Heifer Project Junior Record Book Jun 27, 2013 4H-140P
Virginia 4-H Beef Heifer Project Senior Record Book Jul 1, 2013 4H-141P
Virginia 4-H Market Beef Project Junior Record Book Aug 23, 2013 4H-142P
Virginia 4-H Market Beef Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-143P
Virginia Cow Herd Performance Check-Up

Profitability of the cow/calf enterprise within any particular year is impacted by several factors. A cursory analysis of the most basic farm records can quantify important issues affecting herd success such as reproductive performance, calf growth and weaning weight, calf health performance, market price, and herd turnover.

May 1, 2009 400-791
Zoonotic Diseases of Cattle

Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans and from humans to animals. Zoonotic diseases may be acquired or spread in a variety of ways: through the air (aerosol), by direct contact, by contact with an inanimate object that harbors the disease (fomite transmission), by oral ingestion, and by insect transmission.

May 1, 2009 400-460