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Beef Cattle

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Corn Gluten Feed for Beef Cattle Sep 30, 2009
15th Annual Hokie Harvest Sale Sep 30, 2009
15th Annual Hokie Harvest Sale Sep 1, 2009
16th Annual Hokie Harvest Sale Sep 1, 2010
2009 Across-Breed EPD Table Jun 1, 2009
2009 Field Day - August 5, 2009 Jul 10, 2009
2009 – 2010 BCIA Southwest Bull Test Season Begins Nov 6, 2009
2009-2010 BCIA Bull Test Season Kicks Off Aug 3, 2009
2010 Across-Breed EPD Table Aug 11, 2010
2010 Culpeper Senior BCIA Bull Sale Results Jan 1, 2011
2010 Virginia BCIA Southwest Bull Test & BCIA-Influenced Virginia Premium Assured Plus Bred Heifer Sale Report Apr 30, 2010
2010 – 2011 BCIA Southwest Bull Test Season Begins Dec 3, 2010
2010-11 BCIA Bull Test Season Initiated Aug 1, 2011
2011 Across-Breed EPD Adjustments


Sep 9, 2011
2011 Southwest Bull Test: Sale, Open House, and Bred Heifer Sale Jan 27, 2011
2011 State Fair of Virginia Youth Market Lamb, Commercial Ewe Lamb, Youth Market Goat and Market Beef Nomination Schedule Jun 7, 2011
2011 State Fair of Virginia Youth Market Lamb, Commercial Ewe Lamb, Youth Market Goat and Market Beef Nomination Schedule May 4, 2011
2011 Virginia BCIA Southwest Bull Test & BCIA-Influenced Virginia Premium Assured Plus Bred Heifer Sale Report Apr 12, 2011
2011 Virginia BCIA Superior Service Award Presented to Pete Henderson Apr 12, 2011
A Characterization of Direct-Market Beef Processing and Marketing in Virginia May 11, 2009 448-123
A Characterization of Direct-Marketed Beef Production in Virginia Jul 15, 2009 448-124
Addressing the Consequences of Predator Damage to Livestock and Poultry May 1, 2009 410-030
Age and Source Verification - Capturing the Advantage Nov 6, 2009
Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle

Feed represents the largest single production expense for cattle operations. There are many different feedstuffs that can be included in rations for cattle, and there is nothing special about particular ingredients. What matters is the nutrients they provide.

May 1, 2009 400-230
Ammonia Emissions and Animal Agriculture

Agricultural producers are under constant pressure to minimize the impact their management practices have on the environment. Although most environmental concerns related to animal agriculture have focused on water quality during the past two decades, air quality issues have become an increasing concern. Odors have been the main air quality concern related to agricultural animal production. However, ammonia emissions from livestock and poultry operations have recently received significant attention. New air quality standards that cover ammonia emissions in the United States were adopted in 1997. These regulations will have a significant impact on the future of animal production operations. The purpose of this publication is to provide an overview of ammonia production associated with animal agriculture and to explain why it is receiving greater attention from those concerned with environmental quality.

May 1, 2009 442-110
An Inventory of Beef Slaughter & Processing Facilities for Virginia Direct Marketers of Beef May 26, 2009 448-195
Anaplasmosis in Beef Cattle

Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease of cattle caused by several species of the blood parasite Anaplasma. A. marginale is the most common pathogen of cattle.

May 1, 2009 400-465
April Beef Management Calendar Apr 12, 2011
April Beef Management Calendar Mar 29, 2010
August Beef Management Calendar Aug 1, 2011
August Beef Management Calendar Aug 3, 2009
BCIA Culpeper Senior Bulls Sell December 10 Nov 10, 2011
BCIA Culpeper Senior Bulls Sell December 11 Nov 1, 2010
BCIA Culpeper Senior Bulls Sell December 12 Nov 6, 2009
Beef Cattle Breeds and Biological Types

Worldwide there are more than 250 breeds of beef cattle. Over 60 of these breeds are present in the United States. However, a relatively small number of breeds (less than 20) constitute the majority of the genetics utilized in the U.S. for commercial beef production.

May 1, 2009 400-803
Beef Cow/Calf Herd Health Program and Calendar

It is widely agreed that prevention rather than treatment is the most economical approach to keeping disease losses low. Treatment of a disease after its onset is not always

May 1, 2009 400-007
Beef Quality Assurance: The Future of Beef Marketing! Aug 3, 2009
Beef Webinar Focuses on Profitable Forage Management March 15th, 6:30pm

Dr. Ben Tracy, Associate Professor, Dept. of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences at Virginia Tech, will be the featured speaker for the Beef Webinar sponsored by Virginia Cooperative Extension and scheduled for 6:30 p.m., Tuesday, March 15th.

Feb 28, 2011
Beef Webinar Focuses on Sound Financial Management for Cattlemen February 15th, 6:30 p.m. Jan 27, 2011
Bill McDonald and McDonald Farms Named Virginia BCIA 2011 Outstanding Seedstock Producer of the Year

Virginia BCIA is proud to present the 2011 Virginia Outstanding Seedstock Producer Award to McDonald Farms, owned and operated by the McDonald family- Martha, Bill, along with his wife, Teresa, and son, Joseph, and Jim McDonald, Jr. of Blacksburg, Virginia.  After graduating from Virginia Tech in Animal Science, Bill joined the family operation and has been a driving force in developing the genetics and marketing programs of the operation and currently serves as the manager.

Feb 28, 2011
Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows

Body condition scoring (BCS) is a useful management tool for distinguishing differences in nutritional needs of beef cows in the herd. This system uses a numeric score to estimate body energy reserves in the cow.

May 1, 2009 400-795
Bull Management for a Successful Breeding Season Jun 1, 2009
Bull Selection: Establishing Benchmarks Jan 27, 2011
Calving Emergencies in Beef Cattle: Identification and Prevention

Calving difficulty, technically called dystocia, is a major cause of death loss in cow-calf herds. CHAPA (Cow-calf Health and Productivity Audit) studies indicate that dystocia is responsible for 33 percent of all calf losses and 15.4 percent of beef cattle breeding losses.

May 1, 2009 400-018
Catastrophic Livestock and Poultry Carcass Disposal Nov 19, 2013 ANR-76NP (ANR-90NP)
Cattle Identification: Freeze Branding

Individual animal identification is essential if beef producers are to properly manage animals and their production records. Yet at present, less than 50 percent of the cattle in the United States have any form of individual identification (USDA-APHIS, 1997).

May 1, 2009 400-301
Considering Retained Ownership as a Marketing Option Sep 30, 2009
Cow Herd Performance and Profitability: Measuring How You Stack Up Mar 29, 2010
Creep Feeding Beef Calves

Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf.

May 1, 2009 400-003
Crossbreeding Beef Cattle

The economic climate of today’s beef business is challenging. Commercial cow-calf producers are faced with optimizing a number of economically important traits, while simultaneously reducing costs of production in order to remain competitive. Traits such as reproduction, growth, maternal ability, and end product merit all influence productivity and profitability of the beef enterprise.

May 1, 2009 400-805
Crossbreeding “Revisited” Oct 1, 2010
Crossbreeding- Its Cool Again! Part 1 Dec 3, 2009
Current Strategies in Parasite Control in Virginia Beef Cattle

Many advances have been made in the field of livestock parasite control over the past few years. Because parasites decrease production, usually through decreased weight gain, advances in the control of parasites can have a direct economic impact on beef cattle operations.

May 1, 2009 400-802
DNA Selection - The Basics Nov 6, 2009
Dates to Remember Oct 12, 2011
Dates to Remember Sep 9, 2011
Dates to Remember Aug 1, 2011
Dates to Remember Jun 7, 2011
Dates to Remember Feb 28, 2011
Dates to Remember Jan 27, 2011
Dates to Remember Jan 1, 2011
Dates to Remember Dec 3, 2010
Dates to Remember Nov 1, 2010
Dates to Remember Oct 1, 2010
Dates to Remember Sep 1, 2010
Dates to Remember Aug 9, 2010
Dates to Remember Apr 29, 2010
Dates to Remember Mar 29, 2010
Dates to Remember Dec 3, 2009
Dates to Remember Dec 3, 2009
Dates to Remember Nov 5, 2009
Dates to Remember Sep 30, 2009
December Beef Management Calendar Dec 12, 2011
December Beef Management Calendar Dec 3, 2010
December Beef Management Calendar Dec 3, 2009
Details Announced for 2011-12 Virginia BCIA Central Bull Test Station Program Jun 7, 2011
Dr. Dan Moser Featured Speaker for VT Beef Webinar January 11 Dec 3, 2010
Dr. Dan Moser Featured Speaker for VT Beef Webinar January 11 Dec 3, 2010
Edgewood Angus Receives Top Honors at 2010 Culpeper Senior Bull Test Jan 1, 2011
Estrus Synchronization for Heifers

Developing replacement heifers is the most expensive enterprise in the cow-calf operation. You can increase returns to heifer development if the heifers calve at 24 months of age and calve early in the calving season.

May 1, 2009 400-302
Fall 2011 VQA Sire EPD Specifications Sep 9, 2011
Fall Calf Options Mar 29, 2010
February Beef Management Calendar Jan 27, 2011
Feeder and Stocker Health and Management Practices

Disease represents a major problem in most feeder and stocker settings. In some instances, outbreaks of disease can result in as much as a 30% death loss. In addition, treatment costs, feed efficiency losses, and the expenditures and labor necessary for treatment, as well as the necessity of culling animals which fail to respond to treatment, make disease loss substantial in many situations.

May 1, 2009 400-006
Fencing Materials For Livestock Systems

Good fencing protects and confines valuable livestock by presenting barriers to restrict animal movement. Barriers may be physical, psychological, or a combination of both. Physical barriers consist of enough materials of sufficient strength to prevent or discourage animals from going over, under, or through the fence. Psychological barriers depend upon inflicting pain to discourage animals from challenging a physical barrier of inferior strength.

Traditional livestock fencing materials have included barbed, woven, mesh, and electrified wire, and combinations of these materials. Board fences have also been popular. These conventional materials are still widely used and make excellent fences if properly constructed. However, new materials such as high tensile wire should also be considered when selecting fencing types.

May 1, 2009 442-131
First Beef Webinar Will focus on Winter Nutrition Dec 3, 2009
First and Second Steps in Taking Charge of Your Cow-Calf Operation Jul 10, 2009
Foot Rot in Beef Cattle

Foot rot is a common disease of cattle that can cause severe lameness and decreased weight gain. Other common names for the disease are sore foot and foul foot.

May 1, 2009 400-310
Genetic Improvement Using Young Sires With Genomic Evaluations Apr 21, 2010 404-090
Getting Started in the Cattle Business in Virginia

The beef industry consists of various segments of production. The function of this diverse industry is to produce a live beef animal from which high quality beef is ultimately delivered to the consumer. Newcomers to the business should have some understanding of the structure of the beef industry.

May 1, 2009 400-790
GnRH Based Estrus Synchronization Systems for Beef Cows

New systems of synchronizing estrus (heat) in cows for artificial insemination (AI) have been developed using commercially available Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH). These systems allow producers to artificially inseminate cows with little or no heat detection. For the first time, producers have a reliable system that results in acceptable pregnancy rates to timed AI.

May 1, 2009 400-013
Grass Tetany Season Is Around the Corner

Early spring is usually the peak period for the occurrence of grass tetany in lactating beef cows in Virginia.  Grass tetany is caused by low blood levels of magnesium and is worsened by high levels of nitrogen and potassium and low levels of calcium and magnesium intake.  The lush new growth of cool season perennials and annuals consumed by spring calving cows is a recipe for trouble.  Heavy nitrogen and potassium fertilization intensify the problem.  This makes it more of an issue in the poultry production areas where litter is used routinely as a pasture fertilizer. Similar risks can be observed on pastures fertilized with other animal manures or bio-solids.

Feb 28, 2011
Hay as Part of a Cowherd Production System

Hay is a necessary part of cow-calf production systems in Virginia. Hay is forage which is harvested and stored in a dry form when an excess of forage is available, and fed at times when forage is limited or unavailable.

May 1, 2009 400-002
Health Guarantees for Feeder Cattle Apr 30, 2010
Herbage Quality, Biomass, and Animal Performance of Cattle Grazing. Part I: Forage Biomass, Botanical Composition, and Nutritive Values Nov 19, 2009 418-151
Herbage Quality, Biomass, and Animal Performance of Cattle Grazing. Part II: Animal Performance Nov 19, 2009 418-152
Highlights of the 2010 Hokie Harvest Sale Dec 3, 2010
Hokie Harvest Sale Oct 1, 2010
How Am I Going to Feed My Cows This Winter? Trying to Make Lemonade from Lemons Oct 1, 2010
Implant Calves This Year? May 4, 2011
January Beef Management Calendar Jan 1, 2011
Johne'sDisease-Beef Dec 12, 2011
July Beef Management Calendar Jul 10, 2009
June Beef Management Calendar Jun 1, 2010
June Beef Management Calendar Jun 1, 2009
June-July Beef Management Calendar Jun 7, 2011
Make Plans to Stockpile Fescue to Reduce Winter Hay Needs Jul 10, 2009
Managing Pastures for the Stocker Operation Sep 1, 2010
Managing Your Pastures When It Rains Jun 1, 2009
Manure Management and Environmental Stewardship Apr 1, 2010 442-309
March Beef Management Calendar Feb 28, 2011
March Beef Management Calendar Mar 3, 2010
Marketing Cull Cows in Virginia

Cull cows and bulls represent a significant portion of the net income of Virginia beef farmers. According to the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) 2007 Market Cow and Bull Beef Quality Audit, the sale of cull beef and dairy cows and bulls accounts for as much as 20 percent of the income generated on these farms in the United States (NCBA 2007). Management and marketing strategies that enhance the value of these animals are worth considering. Research has also demonstrated that consumers are concerned about the well-being of the animals that produce the meat they consume (Bowling et al. 2008). Producers cannot ignore this trend.

Oct 20, 2009 400-761
May Beef Management Calendar Apr 30, 2010
Mullins Angus Farm Named Virginia BCIA 2011 Premier Angus Breeder and Bartenslager Award Winner Feb 28, 2011
Mycoplasma in Beef Cattle

Mycoplasma is a tiny bacterium that has a long history of causing disease in the cattle industry. Beginning in the early 2000s, it has emerged as an important entity in Virginia.

May 1, 2009 400-304
November Beef Management Calendar Nov 10, 2011
November Beef Management Calendar Nov 1, 2010
November Beef Management Calendar Nov 5, 2009
Nueropathic Hydrocephaly – Information for Cow-Calf Producers Jul 10, 2009
Nutrient Management for Small Farms Oct 8, 2010 442-305
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Digestive System of the Cow May 1, 2009 400-010
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Essential Nutrients, Feed Classification and Nutrient Content of Feeds

Essential nutrients are nutrients that are needed by all living things. These nutrients must either be fed or made by the animals from building blocks obtained through eating, drinking, or breathing.

May 1, 2009 400-011
Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Production Cycle Nutrition and Nutrient Requirements of Cows, Pregnant Heifers and Bulls

Developing diets and feeding strategies for the cowherd is facilitated by a basic understanding of the production cycle of the cow and her changing nutrient requirements. By knowing and anticipating the changing nutritional needs of the cow, producers can plan their feeding programs and lower feed costs.

May 1, 2009 400-012
October Beef Management Calendar Oct 12, 2011
October Beef Management Calendar Oct 1, 2010
October Beef Management Calendar Sep 30, 2009
On Farm Mortality Disposal Options for Livestock Producers Jul 31, 2013 2909-1412 (ANR-77NP)
Phosphorus Supplementation of Beef Cows Jun 7, 2011
Pinkeye in Beef Cattle

Pinkeye, also known as infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), is one of the most common diseases of beef cattle in Virginia. It is a highly contagious disease, causing inflammation of the cornea (the clear outer layer) and conjunctiva (the pink membrane lining the eyelids) of the eye.

May 1, 2009 400-750
Planning the Feeding of Your Beef Herd This Winter Nov 5, 2009
Planning the Feeding of Your Beef Herd This Winter - Part II Dec 3, 2009
Playing the Cards You’re Dealt Jan 27, 2011
Polioencephalomalacia (PEM or Polio) Associated With Feeding Corn Gluten Mar 29, 2010
Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage: Management and Safety Nov 19, 2009 442-308
Powell River Project - Management of Cow-Calf Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-128
Predicting Bull Fertility

Reproductive efficiency is a major determinant of cow-calf profitability. The bull’s contribution to pregnancy rates is often overlooked.

May 1, 2009 400-009
Preventing Scours in the Upcoming Calving Season Jan 27, 2011
Procedure for Entering a Youth Livestock Competition at the 2009 State Fair of Virginia Aug 3, 2009
R. L. Blanton Named Virginia BCIA 2011 Outstanding Commercial Producer of the Year

R. L. Blanton and Son is a fourth generation farm in Amelia County with 1500 acres that includes over 600 acres of improved pasture in a well managed rotational grazing system, 500 acres of crops in corn, soybeans and small grains, 100 acres of small grain hay, as well a managed timber stand with a combination of hardwoods and planted loblolly pines.

Feb 28, 2011
Recognition and Treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

The recognition and treatment of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC) is vital to the economic well-being of the stocker cattle producer. This disease is also known as shipping fever, or simply pneumonia.

May 1, 2009 400-008
Remember What Drives Profitability in the Cow-Calf Business Nov 1, 2010
Replacement Heifer Development Steps Aug 3, 2009
Results of the 2009 Hokie Harvest Sale Dec 3, 2009
Selecting a Treatment Technology for Manure Management May 11, 2009 442-306
Selection and Location of Poultry and Livestock Manure Storage

If you raise dairy cows, broilers, layers, turkeys, horses, beef cattle, sheep, goats, alpacas, or swine for income or a hobby, you will have to deal with the manure they produce. The amount of manure produced by the birds or animals you keep depends on their type, age, size, and diet.

Nov 19, 2009 442-307
September Beef Management Calendar Sep 9, 2011
September Beef Management Calendar Sep 1, 2010
September Beef Management Calendar Sep 1, 2009
Sheep Update Jul 10, 2009
Sick Calves and Kids Oct 1, 2010
Sire EPD Specifications for VQA- Spring 2010 Mar 3, 2010
Strategic Use of Antibiotics in Stocker Cattle

Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), or shipping fever, remains the most important health issue facing stocker-cattle producers. Despite many advances in our understanding of BRDC, vaccine technology, and new antibiotics in the last 40 years, the percentage of cattle that develop BRDC and the number that die from it have remained relatively unchanged.

May 1, 2009 400-307
Strong Support at the 2011 Hokie Harvest Sale Nov 10, 2011
Summer Fly Control on Cattle Jul 10, 2009
Summer Management of Replacement Ewe Lambs Jul 10, 2009
Summer Slump to Summer Shortage Aug 9, 2010
Ten Steps to Buying the Right Bull Nov 10, 2011
The Value of Crossbreeding in the Beef Business Sep 1, 2010
Time for Fall Nutrition Tune-up Sep 30, 2009
Tips for a Successful Breeding Season Aug 3, 2009
Tips to Becoming More Efficient in Cow-Calf Business Aug 3, 2009
Tri State Cow/Calf Conference Jun 7, 2011
Tri-State Beef Conference To Be Hosted August 15-16 Jun 7, 2011
Tri-State Cow-Calf Conference Aug 3, 2009
Tri-State Cow-Calf Conference Sep 1, 2009
Understanding Expected Progeny Differences (EPDs)

Expected progeny differences (EPDs) provide estimates of the genetic value of an animal as a parent. Specifically, differences in EPDs between two individuals of the same breed predict differences in performance between their future offspring when each is mated to animals of the same average genetic merit.

May 1, 2009 400-804
Understanding and Coping with Summer Slump Jun 1, 2010
Understanding and Utilizing Across Breed EPDs Jan 1, 2011
VQA Sire EPD Specifications Fall 2009 Sep 30, 2009
VQA Sire EPD Specifications Fall 2010 Oct 1, 2010
VT Beef - Winter Webinar Series to Kick-Off December 6th Nov 10, 2011
VT Beef - Winter Webinar Series to Kick-Off December 7 Nov 1, 2010
VT Beef - Winter Webinar Series – Market Outlook – January 10th Dec 12, 2011
Value of Forages is Rising Sep 9, 2011
Video Clips of Culpeper Senior Bulls Available Dec 3, 2010
Virginia 4-H Beef Heifer Project Junior Record Book Jun 27, 2013 4H-140P
Virginia 4-H Beef Heifer Project Senior Record Book Jul 1, 2013 4H-141P
Virginia 4-H Market Beef Project Junior Record Book Aug 23, 2013 4H-142P
Virginia 4-H Market Beef Project Senior Record Book Aug 27, 2013 4H-143P
Virginia BCIA Central Bull Test Program Summary 2010-11 May 4, 2011
Virginia Cow Herd Performance Check-Up

Profitability of the cow/calf enterprise within any particular year is impacted by several factors. A cursory analysis of the most basic farm records can quantify important issues affecting herd success such as reproductive performance, calf growth and weaning weight, calf health performance, market price, and herd turnover.

May 1, 2009 400-791
Virginia Hereford Association Makes A Big Comeback! Sep 1, 2009
Virginia Livestock Hall of Fame Aug 1, 2011
Virginia Retained Ownership Program Summary Sep 1, 2010
Virginia Simmental Field Day Scheduled for October 7 Sep 1, 2009
Weaning Nutrition and Management Sep 1, 2009
Will Cows Get Pregnant in the Coming Breeding Season? Mar 29, 2010
Winter Feeding Tips Jan 1, 2011
Winter Hangover Mar 3, 2010
Winter Memories and Forage Plans Apr 30, 2010
Yearling Bull Management Feb 28, 2011
Yearling Bull Management Mar 3, 2010
Zoonotic Diseases of Cattle

Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans and from humans to animals. Zoonotic diseases may be acquired or spread in a variety of ways: through the air (aerosol), by direct contact, by contact with an inanimate object that harbors the disease (fomite transmission), by oral ingestion, and by insect transmission.

May 1, 2009 400-460
“Time to Judge the Book by its Cover” or Time to Body Condition Score Your Cows Nov 5, 2009