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Carl Zipper

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Managing Shrub-Infested, Postmined Pasturelands With Goats and Cattle Part II. Effects on Forage Biomass, Nutritive Values, and Animal Performance Jan 9, 2012 CSES-3
Managing Shrub-Infested, Postmined Pasturelands With Goats and Cattle. Part I: Effect on Botanical Composition and Browse Species Jan 18, 2012 CSES-4
On-Site Sewage Treatment Alternatives

The purpose of this publication is to describe on-site technologies for treating domestic sewage where conventional means (public sewer or septic tank with drainfield) are not available. These technologies are described as alternatives in this publication. Our goal is to provide information that can be used by property owners and residents to initiate action to rectify sewage-disposal problems, especially where current wastewater treatment is inadequate. This work is intended to provide information on alternative wastewater treatment options that will help the reader to make informed decisions when dealing with oversight agencies and contractors; it is not intended to serve as a stand-alone reference for design or construction.

Jul 1, 2009 448-407
Powell River Project - Coal-resource Contracting Terms for Productive Postmining Forests Feb 26, 2010 460-143
Powell River Project - Conversion of Sericea Lespedeza-dominant Vegetation to Quality Forages for Livestock Use

The purpose of this publication is to describe recommended strategies for converting the sericea-dominant vegetation typically found on older surface-mined benches to more favorable forages that can be more effectively utilized by livestock. Techniques for suppressing the growth of sericea lespedeza in order to establish quality forage species and for managing the resultant pasture or hayland area were developed from research conducted at the Powell River Project Research and Education Center site.

Oct 1, 2009 460-119
Powell River Project - Creation and Management of Productive Minesoils Aug 27, 2010 460-121
Powell River Project - Enhancing Wildlife Habitat on Reclaimed Mine Lands

We monitored wildlife use of reclaimed mine land areas of varying ages and vegetation types at two locations in southwestern Virginia in May through July of 2007 and 2008. Bird, salamander, and frog communities were studied to gain an understanding of how site use and species composition were affected by postmining vegetation characteristics. Mined-land communities were compared with wildlife communities in nearby nonmined forests to better understand how mining and reclamation practices affect wildlife. Here, as an outcome of that study and considering prior research, we provide recommendations for reclamation practices to enhance use of mined land by wildlife.

Mar 30, 2011 460-145
Powell River Project - Establishing Groundcover for Forested Postmining Land Uses Feb 19, 2010 460-124
Powell River Project - Establishment and Maintenance of Quality Turfgrass on Surface-mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-127
Powell River Project - Foundations for Housing on Reclaimed Mined Lands Sep 30, 2009 460-115
Powell River Project - Growing Christmas Trees on Reclaimed Surface-mined Land Sep 2, 2009 460-116
Powell River Project - How to Restore Forests on Surface-mined Land

Most coal-bearing lands in the Appalachian region were forested prior to mining. The region’s forests are predominantly upland oak-hickory and Appalachian mixed hardwoods. These forests provide many benefits to landowners and the public. Solid wood and paper products are perhaps the most tangible benefits, but a predictable flow of high-quality water from forested watersheds into regional streams is another vital benefit provided by the region’s forests. Forests also fix carbon from the atmosphere, provide wildlife food and cover, and provide recreational opportunities and an aesthetically pleasing environment.

Mar 30, 2011 460-123
Powell River Project - Management of Cow-Calf Production on Reclaimed Surface-Mined Land Feb 12, 2010 460-128
Powell River Project - Mine Permitting to Establish Productive Forests as Post-Mining Land Uses Sep 29, 2009 460-141
Powell River Project - On-site Treatment and Disposal of Residential Wastewaters on Mined Lands Dec 3, 2009 460-142
Powell River Project - Passive Treatment of Acid-Mine Drainage

Acidic mine drainage (AMD; also called “acid rock drainage” or “acid drainage”) is an environmental pollutant that impairs water resources in mining regions throughout the world. Where such treatment is required legally, treatment must be efficient and continual. Treatment methods are commonly divided into either “active,” meaning reliance on the addition of alkaline chemicals to neutralize the acidity, or “passive.” The term “passive treatment” means reliance on biological, geochemical, and gravitational processes. Passive treatment does not require constant care or the chemical reagents that characterize “active” AMD treatment.

Mar 30, 2011 460-133
Powell River Project - Reclaiming Mined Lands as Industrial Sites

With the decline of coal-mining jobs in Virginia’s coalfields, availability of local employment in high-wage industries is a major concern. One factor that hinders high-wage manufacturing industries from locating in the coalfield region is a shortage of suitable industrial sites. In some cases, coal surface mines can create sites suitable for industry as a post-mining land use while meeting all Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) requirements.

Dec 2, 2009 460-132
Powell River Project - Reclamation of Coal Refuse Disposal Areas Oct 21, 2010 460-131
Powell River Project - Recovery of Native Plant Communities After Mining

This publication summarizes research on the impacts of reclamation practices on re-establishment of native Appalachian forest ecosystems and describes practices
that may be used during reclamation to encourage re-establishment of native hardwood-forest plant communities.

Feb 25, 2010 460-140
Powell River Project - Reforestation Guidelines for Unused Surface Mined Lands in the Eastern United States

More than a million acres in the Appalachian region were surface mined for coal under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) (US OSM 2008). Much of this land was reclaimed using practices intended to stabilize the surface, prevent erosion, and establish herbaceous vegetation suitable for grazing livestock, but most is not used for grazing. Other areas were reclaimed to post-mining uses such as wildlife habitat or unmanaged forest using similar techniques, but with shrubs and trees able to survive heavy grass cover and compacted mine soils.

Mar 24, 2011 460-144
Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land Dec 4, 2009 460-138
Powell River Project - Revegetation Species and Practices Jul 28, 2010 460-122
Powell River Project - Stabilizing Reclaimed Mines to Support Buildings and Development

Land-use constraints hinder economic activity in the Virginia coalfield region; the lack of flat land hinders infrastructure construction, industrial recruitment, and business development. Reclaimed coal mines are widely discussed as potential development sites, but modern reclamation rarely prepares mined areas for building-support purposes. This publication describes mine-stabilization procedures that can be employed for developing reclaimed mine areas for building construction.

This publication outlines general concepts and guidelines. Parties seeking to construct buildings on any mined area should engage the services of a professional engineer.

Dec 2, 2009 460-130