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David J Sample

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 10: Dry Swale Sep 6, 2013 426-129 (BSE-86P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 11: Wet Swale

A wet swale (WS) is an engineered, best management
practice (BMP) arranged in a straight line that is
designed to reduce stormwater pollution. A WS consists
of a shallow, gently sloping channel with broad,
vegetated, side slopes and slow flows (see figure 1).
Wet swales typically stay wet because the bottom of the
swale is below the water table. This is done to encourage
the growth of wetland vegetation, providing water
quality treatment similar to a natural wetland. This
stormwater treatment practice also functions as part of
the stormwater conveyance system. Wet swales have a
relatively low capital cost; however, maintenance can
be is intensive and expensive when compared to other

Sep 9, 2013 426-130 (BSE-89P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 12: Filtering Practices

A stormwater filtering practice (FP) treats stormwater
runoff by passing it through an engineered filter media
consisting of either sand, gravel, organic matter, and/
or a proprietary manufactured product, collecting it in
an underdrain, and then discharging the effluent to a
stormwater conveyance system. FPs are stormwater
treatment practices that are often obtained from the
marketplace due to unique proprietary technologies
(see figure 1).

Sep 9, 2013 426-131 (BSE-87P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 13: Constructed Wetlands

A constructed wetland (CW) is a low-cost and sustainable,
engineered, best management practice (BMP) designed
to reduce stormwater pollution. Constructed wetlands are
considered to be one of the most reliable stormwater treatment
practices. They are designed to function similarly to
a self-sustaining natural wetland, and should require only
moderate maintenance to function (figure 1).

Sep 9, 2013 426-132 (BSE-91P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 14: Wet Ponds

Wet ponds (WP) are ponds or lakes which provide treatment
and storage of stormwater. The water depth is set
by a structure known as an outlet structure. Wet ponds
are probably the most well-known best management
practice for treatment of stormwater. Because of their
size, they are usually designed to include storage above
the normal pool elevation. This added storage can provide
reductions in downstream flooding and assist in
protecting stream channels. They tend to be large; in
some cases, they can become a passive community
amenity (See Figure 1).

Sep 9, 2013 426-133 (BSE-79P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 15: Extended Detention Ponds

Extended detention ponds (EDs) are dry detention ponds
that provide 12 to 24 hours of runoff storage during peak
runoff events (see figure 1). Releases from the ED ponds
are controlled by an outlet structure. During a storm
event, as the discharge restriction is reached, water backs
up into the ED pond. The pool slows flow velocities and
enables particulate pollutants to settle. Peak flows are
also reduced. ED ponds have the lowest overall pollutant-
removal rate of any stormwater treatment option,
so they are often combined with other upstream, lowimpact
development (LID) practices to better maximize
pollutant-removal rates. Due to their placement at the exit
point of the watershed, ED is often the last opportunity
to treat stormwater before it is discharged to a stream.
Because of its low treatment performance, an ED should
be viewed as the treatment option of last resort.

Sep 9, 2013 426-134 (BSE-82P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 1: Rooftop Disconnection

Rooftop disconnection (RD) is one of the simplest means of reducing stormwater from residential lots. RD takes roof runoff that has been collected in gutters and piped directly to streets, storm drains, and streams and redirects it away from impervious surfaces to landscaped areas (figure 1). Rooftop disconnection is a very sustainable best management practice (BMP) because it controls pollutants in runoff near their source. Redirected runoff from downspouts is infiltrated, filtered, treated, or reused prior to draining into a stormwater conveyance system.

Sep 5, 2013 426-120 (BSE-93P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 2: Sheet Flow to Open Space Sep 6, 2013 426-121 (BSE-83P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 3: Grass Channels Sep 6, 2013 426-122 (BSE-88P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 4: Soil Restoration Sep 6, 2013 426-123 (BSE-80P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 5: Vegetated Roofs Sep 6, 2013 426-124 (BSE-81P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 6: Rainwater Harvesting Sep 6, 2013 426-125 (BSE-90P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 7: Permeable Pavement Sep 6, 2013 426-126 (BSE-84P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 8: Infiltration Practices Mar 2, 2012 426-127 (BSE-85P)
Best Management Practice Fact Sheet 9: Bioretention Sep 6, 2013 426-128(BSE-92P)
Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems Jul 10, 2014 BSE-77P
Innovative Best Management Fact Sheet No. 1: Floating Treatment Wetlands Aug 28, 2013 BSE-76P
Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia

In the Commonwealth of Virginia, water resources are increasingly being scrutinized due to changing surface water or groundwater availability. Access to good quality water is a continuing concern, and in many communities, managing water use — particularly consumptive use — is a priority to conserve public water supplies to meet the needs of a growing population.

Sep 23, 2016 BSE-198P
Urban Stormwater: Terms and Definitions Sep 5, 2013 426-119 (BSE-78P)