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Thomas P. Kuhar

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2014 Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations Feb 19, 2014 456-420 (AREC-80NP)
A Powerful New Insecticide for the Organic Grower

Entrust 80WP® is a new insecticide manufactured by Dow, and it will be available commercially by mid-April 2003. Entrust contains the active ingredient spinosad, which is in the naturalyte class of chemistry. Spinosad is a fermentation product produced by the soil-dwelling actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1340
A Summary of Recent Pesticide Registrations and Other Updates (Extracted from the Virginia Crop Pest Advisory Newsletter)

The EPA has granted a Section 18 registration again this year for Topsin M WSB fungicide manufactured by Cerexagri, Inc. for the control of white mold or timber rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in tomato.

Aug 10, 2009 2906-1373
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2010

This booklet contains arthropod pest management research conducted on vegetable crops in eastern Virginia in 2010. If not noted otherwise in the individual reports, all research was conducted at the Virginia Tech Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center near Painter, VA and at the Hampton Roads Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Virginia Beach, VA. All plots were maintained according to standard commercial practices. Soil type at the ESAREC is a Bojac Sandy Loam. Soil type at the HRAREC is tetotum loam (average pH: 5.7). Most of the research involves field evaluations of federally‐labeled and experimental insecticides. Much of the information presented herein will be published in a similar format in Arthropod Management Tests: 2011, vol. 36 (Entomological Society of America). We hope that this information will be of value to those interested in insect pest management on vegetable crops, and we wish to make the information accessible. All information, however, is for informational purposes only. Because most of the data from the studies are based on a single season’s environmental conditions, it is requested that the data not be published, reproduced, or otherwise taken out of context without the permission of the authors. The authors neither endorse any of the products in these reports nor discriminate against others. Additionally, some of the products evaluated are not commercially available and/or not labeled for use on the crop(s) in which they were used.

Feb 22, 2011 3102-1532
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2011 Feb 1, 2012 ENTO-1
Arthropod Pest Management Research on Vegetables in Virginia – 2013 Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-60NP
Asparagus Beetles

Two species of asparagus beetles are found in Virginia, the asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi (L.), and the spotted asparagus beetle Crioceris duodecimpunctata (L.). Adults of the asparagus beetle are 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) long, metallic blue to black, and have wing covers with three or four white spots and reddish margins. The thorax is red and usually marked with two black spots. The spotted asparagus beetle is about 1/3 inch (8.3 mm) long and orange with 12 spots on its wing covers. Larvae of both are olive green to dark gray with a black heads and legs. Larvae measure about 6/100 inch (1.5 mm) at hatching, and as they develop they become plump and attain a length of about 1/3 inch (8 mm). Both have eggs that are approximately 4/100 inch (1 mm) long, oblong, shiny, black,\ and are attached by one end to asparagus spears.

May 1, 2009 444-620
Asparagus Beetles on Asparagus

The asparagus beetle is a sporadic pest that can be aggravating for asparagus growers throughout Virginia. The shoot damage not only reduces the quality of the spears but this beetle is also unique in the pest world, as it is an insect that is controlled because the eggs laid on the shoots is objectionable to consumers. With a little background on this pest most growers are able develop an effective pest management program.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1352
Bean Leaf Beetle Biology and Management in Snap Beans

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Chrysomelidae

Species: Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster)

Size: Adults are about 1/4 inch (64 mm) long.

Description: Adults range in color from yellow to a dull red with variable numbers of black spots (Fig. 1). Although some have no spots, most will have four black spots down the center of the back with marginal spots or stripes on the edge of the elytra. The distinguishing characteristic is that all have a distinct black triangle behind the prothorax. Eggs are reddish orange ovals about 3/100 inch (0.8 mm) long and have tapered ends. Larvae are white, cylindrical grubs with a black head and anal plate. They have well-developed thoracic legs as well as anal prolegs. The pupae are white and resemble the adult in size and shape.

May 1, 2009 444-009
Bean Pod Mottle Virus in Virginia Soybeans Sep 9, 2010 3009-1461
Beet Webworms Sep 1, 2014 ENTO-77NP
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Homoptera: Penatomidae: Halyomorpha halys

Distribution and Hosts

The brown marmorated stink bug, (BMSB), is an invasive insect not native to North America. It was accidentally introduced near Allentown, PA in 1996 and has spread since that time. It was found in Virginia in 2004 and by 2010, it was found throughout most of the Commonwealth. The BMSB feeds on a wide range of tree fruits and seedpods as well as many vegetables including tomatoes, peppers, beans, cucurbits, and sweet corn. High densities of this pest species have also been seen in soybeans and corn. However, so far in Virginia, the most severely damaged crops have been tree fruit (apples and peaches). For homeowners, it is mainly a nuisance pest, as it invades houses in the winter looking for a place to over-winter. For businesses such as hotels and restaurants and other commercial settings with public interface, the presence of high numbers of these bugs in the fall can have economic consequences.

May 21, 2009 2902-1100
Bt Sweet Corn: What Is It and Why Should We Use It?

Transgenic Bt sweet corn hybrids are a genetically modified organism (GMO) that are the result of combining commercially available sweet corn varieties with genes from a naturally occurring soil bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner or Bt.

Jul 17, 2009 2906-1300
Cabbage Webworm

The cabbage webworm is found throughout the southern United States from Virginia to Florida and west to California. It is rarely a pest in northern climates. In eastern Virginia, it is a common pest on broccoli and cabbage, particularly late in the summer and fall.

May 1, 2009 2811-1022
Chemical Control of European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper

The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most economically important pests of agricultural crops in much of the eastern and central United States.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1355
Colorado Potato Beetle

Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Size: Adults are ~ 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide; mature larvae are 1/2 inch long.

Color: The adult thorax is orange with black spots and the wing covers have five yellowish white and five black alternating stripes running lengthwise (Fig. 1); the larvae are reddish in color with two rows of black spots along each side (Fig. 2); and eggs are yellow (Fig. 3).

Description: The adult beetle is convex above; larvae are smooth, soft-bodied, and humpbacked; and individual eggs somewhat resemble small sausages standing on end.

May 1, 2009 444-012
Compact Soil Sampling Strategy for White Grubs

Annual white grubs (WG) are early-season pests attacking corn seeds and seedlings (Figure 1). Heavy WG infestations can cause stand and yield losses of up to 20%. Because grubs occur in the soil, their presence in fields and subsequent damage to corn may go unnoticed until too late. Also, 30% overwintering mortality in WG densities is typical in VA. Insecticidal seed treatments such as clothianidin (PonchoTM) and thiamethoxam (CruiserTM) are the tools of choice for controlling soil insect pests. Growers typically must decide whether to purchase insecticide-treated seed well in advance of spring planting.

Jun 30, 2011 2802-7027
Controlling Bean Leaf Beetle on Snap Beans

In eastern Virginia, the bean leaf beetle (BLB), Ceratoma trifucata (Forster), has caused serious damage to snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in recent years.

Jul 16, 2009 2906-1332
Corn Earworm on Vegetables Mar 22, 2011 3103-1537
Cruiser 5FS: Supplemental Label for Use on Edible Beans

A supplemental label has been approved in Virginia for the use of Cruiser 5FS (Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc.) seed treatment for beans, both shelled and edible podded. Snap beans and wax beans are included on this label, as well as lima beans, broad beans, blackeyed peas, southern peas, cowpeas, runner beans, asparagus beans, Chinese longbeans, moth beans and yardlong beans.

Jul 30, 2009 2906-1357
Cucumber Beetle Management in Melons

Cucumber beetles can be a major pest of cucurbit crops in Virginia, particularly cantaloupes and cucumbers. This was displayed in dramatic fashion this spring at the Eastern Shore AREC.

Jul 21, 2009 2906-1303
Diamondback Moth in Virginia

The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is considered to be the most destructive insect pest of crucifer crops worldwide. DBM larvae feed on leaves of crucifer crops such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi, Chinese cabbage, and Brussels sprouts. All plant growth stages from seedling to head are susceptible to attack. DBM larvae can reach high densities and cause substantial defoliation as well as contamination and malformation of heads in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. The absence and reduction of effective natural enemies, especially parasitoids, as well as insecticide resistance, contribute to the status of DBM as a pest.

May 1, 2009 444-007
European Corn Borer in Sweet (Bell) Pepper

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a significant pest to over 200 different plant species. In Virginia, it is the number one pest of pepper, Capsicum annuum L. This pest can damage over 50 percent of pepper fruit if control measures are not taken.

May 1, 2009 444-006
Fall Armyworm in Vegetable Crops

Scientific Name: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)
Size: Caterpillars vary in length from 1/2 inch (2mm) as first instar larvae to 3/4 to 1 inch (35 to 50mm) as mature larvae (See Fig. 1). Adult moths have a wingspan of 1.2 to 1.6 inches (32 to 40mm).

Color: Larvae vary in color from light tan or green to dark brown (nearly black) [base color ranging from yellow-green to a dark brown to gray] with three yellowish-white lines down the sides and back from head to tail and four dark circular spots on the upper portion of each abdominal segment. Front of the head is marked with a prominent inverted white Y, but this characteristic is not always a reliable identifier. The forewing of adult male moths is generally shaded gray and brown, with triangular white spots at the tip and near the center of the wing. The forewings of females are less distinctly marked, ranging from a uniform grayish brown to a fine mottling of gray and brown. The hind wing is iridescent silver-white with a narrow dark border in both sexes.

Description: Larvae are hairless and smooth skinned (See Fig. 1).

May 1, 2009 444-015
Field Guide to Stink Bugs Jul 29, 2009 444-356
Green Peach Aphid on Vegetables

Homoptera: Aphididae, Myzus persicae

Distribution. The green peach aphid can be found worldwide and is considered a pest of numerous vegetable crops throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia.

May 1, 2009 2902-1081
Green Stink Bug Apr 11, 2014 ENTO-67NP
History, Distribution and Pest Status of the Mexican bean beetle Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-62NP
Improving Pest Management with Farmscaping Dec 6, 2013 ENTO-52NP(ENTO-55NP)
Insecticide Label Updates

Here are several new insecticide labels and label changes that have occurred recently for vegetable and field crop production in Virginia.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1337
Japanese Beetle Pest Management in Primocane-Bearing Raspberries Sep 15, 2009 2909-1411
Leaf‐ Footed Bugs Dec 21, 2010 3012-1522
Leatherwing (Soldier) Beetles Dec 10, 2013 ENTO-53NP
Management of Aphids in Spinach

In Virginia, spinach can be a profitable crop to grow and is harvested in the spring and the fall. Aphids, especially the green peach aphid (GPA), Myzus personae Sulzer) (see Figure), can be major pests to spinach production.

Jul 27, 2009 2906-1338
Mexican Bean Beetle Dec 13, 2013 ENTO-51NP
Monitoring and Management of Beet Armyworm and Other Rind-feeding Larvae in Watermelon

The following are categories of plants known to thrive in the southeastern/Hampton Roads area of
Virginia that also support bees. *Plants identified as major honey plants for bees

Apr 21, 2011 3104-1540
Pepper Maggot in Sweet (Bell) Pepper

The pepper maggot, Zonosemata electa (Say) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to eastern North America and is thought to have moved from the weedy perennial horse nettle, Solanium carolinense L., to domesticated crops like the bell pepper. Pepper maggot occurrence in pepper is patchy and sporadic. However, infestation can reach 100 percent of the fruit with only a single maggot causing the destruction of an entire pepper fruit.

May 1, 2009 444-005
Pepper Weevil Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-63NP
Performance of Insecticides on Brown Marmorated Stink Bug on Vegetables Dec 14, 2012 ENTO-28NP
Potato Aphid on Tomatoes

Homoptera: Aphididae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

Distribution

The potato aphid is found throughout the United States and southern Canada but is only considered a serious pest in the northeast and north central regions of the United States.

May 1, 2009 2901-1031
Sampling for European Corn Borer in Bell Pepper

The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most economically important pests of agricultural crops in much of the eastern and central United States. O. nubilalis is particularly damaging to sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) because it causes direct injury to the fruit, premature fruit ripening, and fruit rot, a result of pathogens such as Erwinia carotovora entering the feeding wound.

Jul 30, 2009 2906-1356
Scouting for Wireworms before Planting Vegetables

Wireworms are the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are worm-like, hard-bodied, and have 3 pair of legs and a distinct head.

Jul 24, 2009 2906-1329
Seed-Piece Treatments for Insect Control in Potatoes

Tops-MZ-Gaucho is a new seed treatment produced by Gustafson LLC. This product enables potato growers to apply both an insecticide, Gaucho (Bayer Corp.), and a fungicide (Tops-MZ) prior to planting.

Jul 21, 2009 2906-1310
Southeastern U.S. 2014 Vegetable Crop Handbook Feb 6, 2014 AREC-66NP
Squash Bug Mar 25, 2014 ENTO-64NP
Stink Bugs

Adults and nymphs suck sap, feeding primarily on buds and seedpods. This feeding results in weakened plants and malformed buds and fruit. On okra and bean pods, the damage appears as pimples or wart-like growths. On tomatoes and peppers, white marks, often resembling halos, appear on the fruit. On pecans and beans, the damage shows up as brown spots on the nutmeat or seed. On some tree fruit, stink bugs can cause a deforming condition called cat facing on the fruit.

May 1, 2009 444-621
Striped Cucumber Beetle Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-61NP
The Minute Pirate Bug (Orius) Mar 8, 2010 3002-1437
The pest caterpillars of cole crops in Virginia

Caterpillars, or the larval stage of Lepidoptera, are probably the most damaging of insect groups that feed on cole crops, such as collard, kale, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, and Chinese cabbage. Caterpillars typically feed on foliage reducing marketability or outright killing plants. The most common and damaging caterpillars in Virginia cole crops are diamondback moth (DBM), cabbage looper (CL), and imported cabbageworm (ICW). In addition to these key species, there are several other species of caterpillars that will be observed feeding on cole crops that may or may not be a threat to yield of the crop. These species are summarized in Table 1. Normally pest management is meant to target all caterpillars, treating them as one pest “complex;” however, there are some noteworthy differences between the caterpillar species in their life histories and feeding behaviors where proper identification is sometimes necessary.

Mar 2, 2012 ENTO-2
Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

A high incidence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has occurred in crops in Virginia and other Mid-Atlantic states this season. Be on the lookout for this plant virus in tomatoes, peppers, peanuts, potatoes, and tobacco.

Jul 24, 2009 2906-1326
Wireworm Pest Management in Potatoes

Wireworms are the subterranean larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). They are pests of many agricultural crops including corn, sorghum, small grains, tobacco, and various vegetables, but are particularly damaging to potatoes, since the marketable portion of that crop is in the soil. Wireworms are found throughout the world, and species vary greatly across regions. In Virginia, three important pest species of agricultural crops are the corn wireworm, Melanotus communis, the tobacco wireworm, Conoderus vespertinus, and a related species, C. lividus (Fig. 1). A field survey of more than 60 fields in eastern Virginia from 2002 to 2004 revealed that 80% of wireworms collected were the corn wireworm, M. communis. This is the primary soil pest attacking potatoes in Virginia.

May 1, 2009 2812-1026
Wireworm control experiment in potatoes in Abingdon, VA in 2011 Nov 3, 2011 3110-1596