What do you need?

Use the search below to search the site or find your local unit office.

Return to Skip Menu

Main Content

Robert James

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Dairy Heifer Health, Disease Control, and Vaccinations

The future of the dairy herd is dependent on the production of superior heifers to replace culled lactating animals. Therefore, it is imperative that the health status of the replacement animal is optimized to present a healthy first calf heifer to the lactating herd. Studies have consistently demonstrated the detrimental effects of pneumonia in calves on age at first calving and on milk production once these animals enter lactation. Calves with respiratory infections were twice as likely to leave the herd and age at first calving was delayed by 6 months when compared with calves that did not experience respiratory disease or pneumonia. In another study, calves treated for scours were three times more likely to calve at 30 months of age or greater.

May 1, 2009 404-284
Dairy Pipeline, April 2015 Mar 30, 2015 DASC-48NP
Dairy Pipeline, April 2016 Mar 31, 2016 DASC-80NP
Dairy Pipeline, January/February 2015 Jan 7, 2015 DASC-45NP
Dairy Pipeline, January/February 2016 Jan 7, 2016 DASC-73NP
Dairy Pipeline, July/August 2015 Jun 26, 2015 DASC-54NP
Dairy Pipeline, June 2015 May 29, 2015 DASC-52NP
Dairy Pipeline, June 2016 May 31, 2016 DASC-84NP
Dairy Pipeline, March 2015 Mar 2, 2015 DASC-47NP
Dairy Pipeline, March 2016 Feb 26, 2016 DASC-77NP
Dairy Pipeline, May 2015 Apr 29, 2015 DASC-50NP
Dairy Pipeline, May 2016 May 2, 2016 DASC-83NP
Dairy Pipeline, November/December 2014 Nov 4, 2014 DASC-43NP
Dairy Pipeline, November/December 2015 Nov 3, 2015 DASC-60NP
Dairy Pipeline, October 2014 Sep 30, 2014 DASC-42NP
Dairy Pipeline, October 2015 Sep 30, 2015 DASC-59NP
Dairy Pipeline, September 2015 Sep 10, 2015 DASC-58NP
Dairy Pipeline: Activities May 31, 2016
Dairy Pipeline: Activities May 2, 2016
Dairy Pipeline: Activities Mar 31, 2016
Dairy Pipeline: Activities Feb 26, 2016
Dairy Pipeline: Activities Jan 7, 2016
Dairy Pipeline: Activities Nov 3, 2015
Dairy Pipeline: Activities Sep 30, 2015
Early Heifer Development and Colostrum Management

Raising dairy replacement heifers is expensive. In fact, if the dairy is divided into different enterprises (eg. labor, feed cost for lactating cows, facilities, etc.), rearing replacements is the second largest cost, behind feed cost for lactating cows. The percentage will vary from farm to farm, but approximately 9% to 20% of the expenses incurred will involve rearing and developing heifers. Therefore, heifers should represent a sound investment, as their impact on future herd profitability is enormous.

May 1, 2009 404-282
Feeding Protein to Meet Dairy Cow Nutrient Requirements Can Result in Cheaper, Environmentally Friendly Rations

Animal agriculture is facing the significant issue of managing excreted nutrients, and researchers are designing programs to address the issue. The intense management of animals in the poultry, swine, and dairy industries can contribute to environmental pollution. Although there are more beef than dairy cattle in Virginia, beef cattle are typically maintained on pasture and dispersed over a greater area. Feed management in dairy cows to reduce nutrient consumption has been identified as being very effective in reducing output of potentially polluting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.

May 1, 2009 404-354
How Much, How Soon? Feb 26, 2016
It Has Been A Great Ride! May 31, 2016
Nutrition For The Early Developing Heifer

Several factors can dramatically reduce replacement-rearing cost and increase potential profits for the producer: (1) maximizing immunity from colostrum to minimize mortality and sickness, (2) formulating rations for specific weight gains during strategic periods of development and avoiding over-fattening prior to puberty because it impairs mammary development, (3) formulating rations for an average daily gain of 1.8 lb. for Holstein heifers, (4) using AI sires ranking in the top 20% for (PTA$) to optimize genetic improvement, (5) monitoring age, body weight, wither height, body condition score as well as peak milk and ME milk yield of first lactation heifers to evaluate management at first calving, and (5) controlling the size of the replacement herd by calving heifers at 24 months and raising no more than needed.

May 1, 2009 404-283
Plan Your Forage Utilization For The Coming Year Sep 30, 2015