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Patricia A. Hipkins

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Accurate Application and Placement of Chemicals on Lawns Jul 16, 2012 BSE-39NP
Droplet Chart / Selection Guide

Nozzle type and application pressure govern droplet size (see Nozzles: Selection and Sizing, Virginia Cooperative Extension publication 442-032), which in turn affects system output (application rate), target deposition, uniformity, efficacy, and the risk of drift. Off-target movement in the form of spray drift is a major concern because it diverts the chemical from the intended target, reduces efficacy, and deposits pesticide where it is not needed or wanted. When a pesticide drifts, it may cause both environmental and economic damage, including exposure to people and property, injury to susceptible vegetation, harm to wildlife, deposition of illegal residues on crops, and contamination of water supplies.

May 27, 2009 442-031
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Feb 27, 2013 ANR-48NP
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: On-Farm Assessment and Security Practices

Acts of terrorism have heightened our awareness of the need for increased personal and farm security. The greatest security risk to farms, greenhouses and nurseries where plants are grown is the unauthorized access to farm chemicals and application equipment.

Mar 9, 2011 445-005
Farm Security - “Treat it Seriously” – Security for Plant Agriculture: Producer Response for Plant Diseases, Chemical Contamination, and Unauthorized Activity

Acts of terrorism have heightened our awareness of the need for security, both at home and on the farm or nursery. This publication and the checklist that accompanies it will help you be proactive with regard to farm security.

Mar 9, 2011 445-004
Groundwater Quality and the Use of Lawn and Garden Chemicals by Homeowners

The people of Virginia use nearly 400 million gallons of groundwater each day to meet industrial, agricultural, public, and private water demands. One-third of Virginia's citizens rely on groundwater as their primary source of fresh drinking water, and 80 percent of Virginians use groundwater to supply some or all of their daily water needs. Groundwater is an important resource, but it is a hidden one and, therefore, is often forgotten. In fact, until recent incidents of groundwater contamination, little attention was paid to the need to protect Virginia's groundwater.

May 1, 2009 426-059
Nozzles: Selection and Sizing

This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.

Jan 31, 2014 442-032 (BSE-103P)
Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems May 1, 2009 420-013
Pyridine Herbicide Carryover: Causes and Precautions May 9, 2012 VTTP-6NP