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D. Ames Herbert

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2009 Virginia Cotton Production Guide Oct 7, 2009 424-300
2009-2011 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in the Virginia-Carolina Region Apr 25, 2013 AREC-11P
2010 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Dec 1, 2009 2810-1017
2011 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Feb 1, 2012 AREC-7
2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 12, 2011 2810-1017
2012 Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Jan 28, 2013 AREC-37NP
2012 Performance of Sorghum Hybrids in Virginia Nov 26, 2012 AREC-30NP
2013 Insect Pest Management In Virginia Cotton, Peanut, Soybean, and Sorghum Dec 10, 2013 AREC-61NP
2013 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Feb 12, 2013 AREC-31NP
2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide May 2, 2014 AREC-58NP
Agronomy Handbook, 2000 May 1, 2009 424-100
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control

Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.

May 1, 2009 444-018
Biology and Management of Hessian Fly in the Southeast Feb 27, 2013 AREC-39P (ANR-1069)
Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar

Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the
activity of parasites.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1421
Cereal Leaf Beetle, Biology and Management

Cereal leaf beetle, a native to Europe and Asia, was first detected in Michigan in 1962. Since that time it has spread throughout most of the mid-western and eastern United States and has become a significant pest of Virginia and North Carolina small grains. This insect can become very numerous in small grain fields and the larvae are capable of reducing grain yield by eating the green leaf tissue.

May 1, 2009 444-350
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans

Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.

May 1, 2009 444-770
Field Guide to Stink Bugs Jul 29, 2009 444-356
Growing Bread Wheat in the Mid-Atlantic Region

The more than 55 million people who live in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States want to purchase processed grain foods such as bread and other dough products made from hard, or bread, wheat. 

May 1, 2009 424-024
Growing Hulless Barley in the Mid-Atlantic May 1, 2009 424-022
Identifying Soybean Fields at Risk to Leaf-Feeding Insects


What is LAI? Leaf area index (LAI) is the ratio of leaf area to land area. Soybean requires LAI values of at least 3.5 to 4.0 by early to mid-reproductive developmental stages to achieve maximum yield for that year and environment. A soybean crop that does not achieve adequate LAI could be at risk to yield loss from insect leaf-feeders, whereas, fields with high (4+) LAI can sustain significant insect feeding with little to no effect on yield. This publication will aid producers in evaluating soybean fields at risk to yield reduction from leaf-feeding insects.

May 1, 2009 444-203
Insect Pest Management in Virginia: Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean 2010 May 1, 2009 2812-1027
Integrated Pest Management Peanut Scouting Manual

Integrated Pest Management

In the competitive global peanut market, you need to lower production costs. At the same time, you also need to keep pesticide residues in peanuts to a minimum; protect rivers, streams, and lakes from runoff; and prevent chemicals from leaching through the soil to groundwater. Using IPM to protect crops only from pests that are likely to cause economic losses is a good way to meet these goals.

The Three Keys to IPM

  1. Scout the crop regularly and systematically to identify pests.
  2. Use control measures only when monitoring shows that a pest is likely to reach economically damaging levels.
  3. Apply the lowest effective amount of pesticide using equipment that is correctly calibrated.
May 1, 2009 444-126
Intensive Soft Red Winter Wheat Production

New and successful techniques have been developed for intensive soft red winter wheat management by a multidisciplinary research and Extension team at Virginia Tech. Research was started in the early 1980's and continues today. The guidelines presented in this manual and the accompanying videotape are based on that research.

May 1, 2009 424-803
Locust Leafminer, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg) Jan 25, 2011 3101-1528
Managing Stink Bugs in Cotton: Research in the Southeast Region

Stink bug pests across the south eastern cotton belt consist of three main species: the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say); and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)  Due to the diverse environmental conditions across this production region, population levels of these species vary widely across seasons, states, and fields. In North Carolina and Virginia, green and brown stink bugs are the primary species, while southern green and brown stink bugs predominate in Georgia,and all three species are commonly observed in South Carolina.

Sep 23, 2009 444-390
Monitoring and Management of Beet Armyworm and Other Rind-feeding Larvae in Watermelon

The following are categories of plants known to thrive in the southeastern/Hampton Roads area of
Virginia that also support bees. *Plants identified as major honey plants for bees

Apr 21, 2011 3104-1540
No-Tillage Small Grain Production in Virginia May 1, 2009 424-005
Pest Management Guide: Field Crops, 2014 Feb 3, 2014 456-016 (ENTO-37P)
Second Edition Mid-Atlantic Guide to the Insect Pests and Beneficials of Corn, Soybean, and Small Grains Oct 4, 2012 444-360
Soybean Insect Guide Feb 7, 2014 AREC-68NP
The Peanut Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory

The southern corn rootworm (SCR) has long been considered a major pest of peanuts in North Carolina and Virginia. However, researchers and Extension faculty at Virginia Tech and NC State have determined through more than 400 commercial field trials that the majority of peanut fields do not need to be treated. They have developed and tested a simple-to-use advisory that identifies those fields not at risk for pod damage or economic loss. The Southern Corn Rootworm Advisory can save you time and money as well as help you use insecticides more efficiently.

May 1, 2009 444-351
Troubleshooting The Soybean Crop Nov 16, 2012 AREC-25NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2010 Dec 10, 2009 2810-1019
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2011 Jan 12, 2011 2810-1019-11
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2012 Feb 1, 2012 AREC-8
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2013 Feb 6, 2013 AREC-33NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide 2014 Feb 7, 2014 AREC-62NP
Virginia Cotton Production Guide, 2008 May 1, 2009 424-300-08
Winter Grain Mite

Order: Acarina

Family: Penthaleidae

Species: Penthaleus major (Dugès)

Size: Adult, 1 mm long; eggs, .25 mm long..

Color: Adult is dark brown to almost black with red legs (Figs. 1 and 2); nymph is brownish with orange legs; a young larva is bright pink to orange but darkens to light brown after one day; freshly deposited eggs are smooth, kidney shaped, and reddish orange, but within minutes become wrinkled and after several days become a straw yellow color.

Description: The adult is relatively large compared to other spider mites and is the only mite of economic importance with the anal pore (a tan to orange spot best seen with microscope, but can be seen with a hand lens) on the upper surface of the abdomen.

May 1, 2009 444-037