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Louis A. Helfrich

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Clearing Muddy Pond Waters

All other things being equal, clear water ponds can produce many more fish than muddy ponds. Muddy water reduces fish food availability, and interferes with the ability of fish to see and catch prey. Muddy waters favor blue-green algae and bacterial growth, which can impart a bad flavor to drinking water and food fish. Green water is usually the result of algae, which is another type of problem with a different solution than that discussed here. It is a sad irony that the same soil that is vital for agricultural production on land becomes a major pollutant when suspended in water.

May 1, 2009 420-250
Commercial Frog Farming May 1, 2009 420-255
Control Methods For Aquatic Plants in Ponds and Lakes

Aquatic plants growing in ponds and lakes are beneficial for fish and wildlife. They provide food, dissolved oxygen, and spawning and nesting habitat for fish and waterfowl. Aquatic plants can trap excessive nutrients and detoxify chemicals. Aquatic wildflowers such as the water lily are sold and planted to provide floral beauty to garden ponds.

However, dense growths (over 25% of the surface area) of algae and other water plants can seriously interfere with pond recreation and threaten aquatic life. Water plants can restrict swimming, boating, fishing, and other water sports. Water plants can impart unpleasant taste (musty flavor), decaying vegetation emits offensive odors (rotten egg smell), and algae can discolor pond waters. Dense growths of plants can cause night time oxygen depletion and fish kills. Green plants produce oxygen in sunlight, but they consume oxygen at night. Decomposing water weeds can deplete the oxygen supply, resulting in sport fish kills from suffocation. Dense plant growths can provide too much cover, preventing predation, and leading to stunted (small-sized) sportfish populations.

May 1, 2009 420-251
Fee-fishing Ponds and Streams in Virginia May 1, 2009 420-720
Fish Kills: Their Causes and Prevention May 1, 2009 420-252
Freshwater Fish Farming in Virginia: Selecting the Right Fish to Raise May 1, 2009 420-010
Guide to Understanding and Managing Lakes: Part I (Physical Measurements) May 1, 2009 420-538
Help Save America's Pearly Mussels May 1, 2009 420-014
Landowner's Guide to Managing Streams in the Eastern United States May 1, 2009 420-141
Liming Acidified Lakes and Ponds May 1, 2009 420-254
Management of Wood Ducks on Private Lands and Waters May 1, 2009 420-802
Managing Spring Wetlands For Fish and Wildlife Habitat May 1, 2009 420-537
Pesticides and Aquatic Animals: A Guide to Reducing Impacts on Aquatic Systems May 1, 2009 420-013
Planning for Commercial Aquaculture May 1, 2009 420-012
Pond Construction: Some Practical Considerations May 1, 2009 420-011
Should You Attempt Fish Farming? Considerations for Prospective Fish Growers May 1, 2009 420-897
Stocking Sportfish in Virginia Ponds: Methods and Commercial Supply Sources May 1, 2009 420-009
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Aquatic Habitats: Homes for Aquatic Animals May 1, 2009 420-522
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Crayfish Biodiversity and Conservation May 1, 2009 420-524
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Fish Biodiversity and Conservation May 1, 2009 420-525
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Freshwater Mussel Biodiversity and Conservation May 1, 2009 420-523
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Selected Freshwater Fish Families May 1, 2009 420-526
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - What Is Aquatic Biodiversity; Why Is it Important? May 1, 2009 420-520
Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity - Why Is Aquatic Biodiversity Declining? May 1, 2009 420-521
The Control of Burrowing Crayfish in Ponds May 1, 2009 420-253
Understanding Fish Nutrition, Feeds, and Feeding May 1, 2009 420-256
Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia's Waters May 1, 2009 420-900