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Robert Grisso

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
2011 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 12, 2011 2810-1017
2014 Virginia Peanut Production Guide May 2, 2014 AREC-58NP
2015 Virginia Peanut Production Guide Jan 6, 2015 AREC-117NP
2016 Virginia Peanut Production Guide

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by Virginia Tech nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to obtain information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. 

Jan 28, 2016 AREC-157NP
Accurate Application and Placement of Chemicals on Lawns Jul 16, 2012 BSE-39NP
Arthritis and Farming

 Approximately 52.2 million, or more than 1 in 5 Americans, suffer from arthritis. This chronic disease is more prevalent among farmers. A recent survey of Virginia farmers revealed that about 30 percent of the respondents have been diagnosed with arthritis. Among those affected, about half of them reported that the condition interferes with their daily activities even though only 42 percent of them are currently receiving treatment (Mariger et al. 2009). Since it causes pain and inflammation in joints and limits mobility, arthritis has the potential to prematurely disable farmers and farm workers if they do not take proper care. 

Aug 19, 2014 442-083 (BSE-139P)
Assistive Technologies in Agriculture

In terms of work-related injuries, farming remains one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. In 2012, 374 farmers and farm workers died from a work-related injury, resulting in a fatality rate of 20.2 deaths per 100,000 farm workers – from accidents resulting from agriculture-related activities (NIOSH 2014). Statistics also reveal that agriculture-related activities result in nonfatal injuries. For example, in 2006, crop and animal-production activities resulted in 22,400 and 13,100 injuries, respectively (U.S. Department of Labor 2006). These nonfatal injuries may include primary as well as secondary injuries.

Dec 3, 2014 442-084 (BSE-183P)
Biodiesel Fuel

Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be made from vegetable oil, animal fat, and recycled cooking oils. Oils produced from algae, fungi, bacteria, molds, and yeast can also be used to produce biodiesel.

Jan 14, 2015 442-880 (BSE-180P)
Deep Tillage Prior to No-Till Corn: Research and Recommendations May 1, 2009 424-053
Determining Forage Moisture Concentration

Fires that damage or destroy hay and barns cost farmers thousands of dollars in building and feed replacement costs and in lost revenues. Many of these fires are caused by the spontaneous combustion of hay that usually occurs within six weeks after baling. This publication discusses the cause and prevention of hay fires and provides guidelines to follow when a hay fire is detected.

May 1, 2009 442-106
Driving Safely in Plain Communities

Slow and high speed vehicles do not mix well on highways unless precautionary measures are taken by the operators of these vehicles. Automobiles running into slow moving vehicles on roadways are very common. Statistics show that the majority of the traffic deaths from such accidents occur in rural areas and approximately 50% of those deaths occur on country roads.

Feb 22, 2011 3102-1533
Droplet Chart / Selection Guide

When choosing nozzles/droplet sizes for spray applications, applicators must consider both coverage needed and drift potential. As a rule, smaller droplets provide better coverage, but larger droplets are less likely to drift.

Sep 25, 2014 442-031 (BSE-149P)
ENERGY SERIES: Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use

If you're trying to decide whether to invest in a more energy-efficient appliance or if you'd like to determine your electricity loads, you may want to estimate appliance energy consumption.

Jun 26, 2014 2901-9014 (BSE-137NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What About Using Ceiling Fans?

Can Ceiling Fans Lower My Utility Bill?

Ceiling fans create a breeze, so room occupants feel cooler and more comfortable. With a ceiling fan running, you can raise the thermostat setting by 2 to 4 degrees during the cooling season with no reduction in comfort. Increasing the room temperature by even two degrees can cut your cooling costs 4 to 6%.

Jun 9, 2014 2901-9002 (BSE-117NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What About the Ductwork?

Air distribution or duct systems are designed to supply rooms with air that is “conditioned”—that is, heated or cooled by the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment—and to recirculate or return the same volume of air back to the HVAC equipment. Your duct system has two main air transfer systems: 1) supply, and 2) return. The supply side delivers the conditioned air to the home through individual room registers. The return side picks up inside air and delivers it to the air handler of your central system where heat and moisture are either removed or added and then delivered to the supply side. All of the air drawn into the return duct(s) is conditioned and should be delivered back through the supply registers.

Jun 9, 2014 2901-9003 (BSE-118NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What Are the Differences Between Mobile and Modular Homes?

Mobile and modular homes are factory-built and generally differ in how much of the construction occurs at the factory. The greater the work at the factory, the less labor is needed where the home will be located.

Jun 26, 2014 2901-9011 (BSE-125NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What Can Builders Do to Help Prevent Moisture Problems in New Construction?

Buildings should be designed and built to provide comfortable and healthy levels of relative humidity. They should also prevent both liquid water from migrating through building components and water vapor from being trapped in building assemblies, like walls.

Jun 26, 2014 2901-9012 (BSE-126NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What Does the Shape of the House Have to Do With Energy Efficiency?

In a home, heat energy is transferred among all materials and substances that are of different temperatures—within the building materials, inside the building itself, and outside the building envelope. The term “building envelope” refers to all of the external building materials, windows, and walls that enclose the internal space. Heat moves only when there is a difference in temperature, and it always moves from the warm side to the cool side. Heat will continue to “flow” until any touching materials reach the same temperature. However, we usually want the inside of a home to have a different temperature from the outside.

Jun 26, 2014 2901-9013 (BSE-127NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Appliances? Jun 26, 2014 2908-9015 (BSE-128NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Caulking and Weather-Stripping? Jul 1, 2014 2908-9017 (BSE-130NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Dishwashers? Jul 1, 2014 2908-9018 (BSE-131NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Insulation?

Insulation is rated in terms of thermal resistance, called R-value, which indicates the resistance to heat flow. Although insulation can slow heat flow—conduction, convection and radiation—its greatest impact is on conduction.

Jun 10, 2014 2901-9006 (BSE-120NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Landscaping and Energy Efficiency? Jul 7, 2014 BSE-145NP
ENERGY SERIES: What about Mold?

Mold has received a lot of attention of late because of high profile lawsuits and television news broadcasts that have highlighted the potential hazards and liabilities associated with indoor mold. What is mold? Molds, along with mildews, yeasts, and mushrooms, all belong to the kingdom fungi. Fungi are unicellular or multicellular organisms that primarily use absorption as a means to obtain energy from their environment, unlike green plants, which use chlorophyll to obtain energy from sunlight. The term “mold” describes unwanted visible fungal growth. “Mildew” is fungi that grows on fabrics or that causes plant disease. The term “yeast” is fungi that are unicellular when cultured.

Jun 26, 2014 2901-9008 (BSE-122NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Radiant Barriers? Jul 7, 2014 2908-9021 (BSE-138NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Refrigerators and Freezers? Jul 2, 2014 2908-9022 (BSE-143NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Ventilation? Jul 7, 2014 2908-9024 (BSE-135NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about Windows? Jun 30, 2014 2901-9010 (BSE-124NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Air Conditioning System?

As you begin the process of selecting the most efficient air conditioning system for your home, investigate the critical issues of system size, placement, installation, and contractor experience.  Your goal is to obtain an efficient system by:  sizing the system for the specific cooling load of your home; selecting and properly installing the thermostats or controls; designing a ductwork system to deliver the correct amount of conditioned air to each space; and sealing and insulating all ductwork.

Jun 9, 2014 2901-9001 (BSE-142NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Bathroom? Jul 1, 2014 2908-9016 (BSE-129NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Heating System?

The efficiency of a gas (natural or propane) or oil furnace is measured by the Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE), which describes the heat produced from the energy used. This rating takes into consideration losses from pilot lights, start-up, and stopping. For example, a furnace with an AFUE rating of 80 converts 80% of the fuel it burns into usable heat. New furnaces usually rate in the mid-70s to low 80s, whereas older furnaces will be in the 50s or 60s. ENERGY STAR® qualified oil and gas furnaces have annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) ratings of 83% and 90%, or higher, making them up to 15% more efficient than standard models. Unlike the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) and Heating Season Performance Factor (HSPF) ratings, the AFUE does not consider the unit’s electricity use for fans and blowers.

Jun 9, 2014 2901-9005 (BSE-119NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Laundry Area?
The laundry room can be a big consumer of energy—more than 1,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) a year—and water—and a big producer of unwanted heat and humidity in the summer. It makes good sense to think about both the location and the appliances in it if you want to run an energy-efficient laundry. And there are new washers and dryers on the market now that make it easier than ever to do so.
Jun 9, 2014 2901-9007 (BSE-121NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Roof? Jul 2, 2014 2908-9023 (BSE-134NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What about the Water Heater?

Heating water is the third largest energy expense in your home, after heating and cooling the entire space; and, it can account for 15-25% of your utility bill. It’s not hard to see why a family of four, each taking a 5-minute shower a day under inefficient showerheads, can use 700 gallons of water in a week representing a 3-year supply of drinking water for one person! There are several ways to cut down the amount you spend on heating water: a) insulate your water heater and pipes; b) reduce the amount of hot water you use; and c) turn down the thermostat on your water heater.

Jun 26, 2014 2901-9009 (BSE-123NP)
ENERGY SERIES: What is the Whole-House Systems Approach to Energy Efficiency? Jul 7, 2014 2908-9025 (BSE-136NP)
ENERGY SERIES:What about House Design and Room Location? Jul 1, 2014 2908-9019 (BSE-132NP)
ENERGY SERIES:What about Moisture? Jul 2, 2014 2908-9020 (BSE-133NP)
Environmental Best Management Practices for Virginia's Golf Courses Feb 27, 2013 ANR-48NP
Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness

Farmers account for more than 30 percent of adults disabled by respiratory illness. Yet, a large percentage of farmers are nonsmokers. If smoking is not to blame for these ailments, then what is? The answer is farmer's lung.

Aug 18, 2014 442-602 (BSE-141P)
Fine Tuning a Sprayer with “Ounce” Calibration Method
This extension publication discusses guidelines to quickly evaluate the performance of a sprayer. Sprayer calibration, nozzle discharge, spray pattern uniformity, speed checks, pump performance, and plumbing arrangements are evaluated with minimal calculations.
Dec 3, 2014 442-453 (BSE-178P)
Five Strategies for Extending Machinery Life
Machinery ownership and operation is a major crop and livestock production cost. Several strategies when combined can significantly affect costs, improve machine reliability, and improve profit margins.
Oct 9, 2014 442-451 (BSE-174P)
Grape Production Injuries and Prevention

Grape acreage and production have been steadily increasing in the US. In 2010 there were approximately 23,000 farms with a total of 944,800 acres producing grapes. Ninety percent of these farms are smaller than 100 acres and about 16,000 of these were vineyards. California accounts for about 90% of the total production in the US. The next two largest grape producing states are Washington and New York and they produce approximately 6% and 2% respectively (NASS-USDA, 2014)

Jun 30, 2015 BSE-186NP
Guidelines for Protecting Youth Workers: Promote Safe Practices and Protect Youth Workers Aug 13, 2014 BSE-46NP (BSE-107P)
Hand Tools Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide Hand Tool Care and Safe Use

 Many hand tools such as rakes, shovels, and pruners are used widely in lawn care operations. While these non-powered tools are not known to cause major injuries, they have the potential for injuries that may require absence from work and/or medical assistance when they are used improperly. Examples of such injuries may include bruises, cuts, sprains, back problems, and carpal tunnel syndrome. 

Sep 15, 2014 BSE-51P (BSE-113P)
Hay Fire Prevention and Control

Fires that damage or destroy hay and barns cost farmers thousands of dollars in building and feed replacement costs and in lost revenues. Many of these fires are caused by the spontaneous combustion of hay that usually occurs within six weeks after baling. This publication discusses the cause and prevention of hay fires and provides guidelines to follow when a hay fire is detected.

May 1, 2009 442-105
Interpreting Yield Maps - "I gotta yield map - now what?"

Yield monitors are the first step many producers take into the age of precision farming. While their cost is reasonable, the commitment of time and resources required to effectively use this technology is significant. A yield monitor, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, is simply an electronic tool that collects data on crop performance for a given year. The monitor measures and records information such as crop mass, moisture, area covered, and location. Yield data are automatically calculated from these variables.

May 1, 2009 442-509
Investing in GPS Guidance Systems?

The price of GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) guidance system technology continues to decline as its capabilities increase. Many farmers question if or when they should invest in this technology. The major advantage of using GPS is input savings from more precise field application of seed, fertilizers, chemicals, fuel, and labor, as well as increased benefits to the farm production process (extended working time, reduced fatigue, etc.).

May 26, 2009 448-076
Large Round Bale Safety

This Extension publication covers the safety aspects of equipment used in large round bale packages such as: balers, front-end loaders, bale handling and transport devices. The key to safe and efficient systems for handling large round bales is an operator who knows the hazards involved and who follows safety practices that can prevent accidents. Operators must be constantly alert for situations that may cause injuries to themselves or others. Besides pain and suffering, accidents contribute to higher costs in terms of unnecessary downtime or costly machine repairs. Alertness and safety consciousness can result in more efficient and profitable baling and handling.

Oct 13, 2014 442-455 (BSE-172P)
Lawn Care: Hand Tools Safety Nov 5, 2013 BSE-40NP (BSE-98P)
Lawn Care: Powered Hand Tool Safety Nov 6, 2013 BSE-41NP (BSE-97P)
Lawn Care: Rotary Mower Safety Nov 5, 2013 BSE-42NP (BSE-96P)
Lawn Care: Tractor Safety Nov 5, 2013 BSE-43NP (BSE-100P)
Lawn Care: Utility-Type Vehicle Safety Nov 5, 2013 BSE-44NP (BSE-99P)
Lighting and Marking Recommendations for Animal-Drawn Carriages, Buggies and Wagons Nov 4, 2014 3006-1454 (BSE-184NP)
Machinery Safety on the Farm

Machines; no farm or ranch can function without them. They save valuable time and are essential to agricultural productivity. They also represent an ever-present danger to the people who operate them. There are a host of hazards that makes agricultural machinery the leading cause of injury and death on American farms and ranches.

Dec 3, 2014 442-092 (BSE-179P)
Management Tips for Round Bale Hay Harvesting, Moving, and Storage

Hay production and feeding is one of the most expensive components of forage-livestock systems. Specific management practices are necessary to maintain hay quality and minimize hay loss during harvest, transportation and storage of large round bales.

Large round bale packaging systems allow one person to harvest, store and feed large quantities of hay for small as well as large acreages. Proper management is required to maximize effectiveness because losses during baling, transport and storage of large round bales can far exceed the losses with rectangular bale systems.

Oct 9, 2014 442-454 (BSE-173P)
Nozzles: Selection and Sizing

This fact sheet covers nozzle description, recommended use for common nozzle types, and orifice sizing for agricultural and turf sprayers. Proper selection of a nozzle type and size is essential for correct and accurate pesticide application. The nozzle is a major factor in determining the amount of spray applied to an area, uniformity of application, coverage obtained on the target surface, and amount of potential drift.

Jan 31, 2014 442-032 (BSE-103P)
Parkinson’s Disease - Life Experiences

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a part of your life whether you have it or if someone you love has it. In either case, it has already changed certain parts of your life whether you know it or not and the changes will continue to happen in varying degrees over time. Two things are certain with PD, you will progress and it will be at your own pace. Everything else is up for grabs!

Oct 17, 2014 BSE-181NP
Peer-reviewed document template Jul 20, 2016 VCE-750NP
Planning for a Farm Storage Building

A farm storage building is a good investment for many agricultural operations. The building can be used to store hay, machinery, or both. As a result, the value of these commodities will be worth more than if left in the field. However, does the increased value of stored hay or machinery offset the cost of owning a building? The following discussion examines the costs and savings of owning a farm storage building.

May 1, 2009 442-760
Planter/Drill Considerations for Conservation Tillage Systems

No-till planters and drills must be able to cut and handle residue, penetrate the soil to the proper seeding depth, and establish good seed-to-soil contact. Many different soil conditions can be present in the Mid-Atlantic region at planting time. Moist soils covered with residue, which may also be wet, can dominate during the late fall and early spring and, occasionally, in the summer. Although this condition provides an ideal environment for seed germination, it can make it difficult to cut through the residue. In contrast, hard and dry conditions may also prevail. Although cutting residue is easier during dry conditions, it is more difficult to penetrate the hard, dry soils. Proper timing, equipment selection and adjustments, and crop management can overcome these difficult issues.

Aug 8, 2014 442-457 (BSE-147P)
Plumbing Systems of Agricultural Sprayers

The plumbing systems of agricultural sprayers are usually considered foolproof. Sprayer problems may occur if plumbing and/or modifications are improperly done or maintenance is ignored. Retrofitting, addition of electrical control systems, and replacement of pumps or nozzles require proper knowledge of the plumbing system and the implications of these changes to sprayer performance. Routine maintenance of the plumbing system is essential.

Oct 1, 2014 442-452 (BSE-171P)
Powered Hand Tools Safety: Lawncare Training Guide Sep 24, 2014 BSE-50P (BSE-112P)
Precision Farming Tools: GPS Navigation

For a review of the principles of GPS to locate specific field points, refer to this GPS Tutorial (Trimble Navigation Limited, 2008). GPS and associated navigation systems are used in many types of agricultural operations. These systems are useful particularly in applying pesticides, lime, and fertilizers and in tracking wide planters/drills or large grain-harvesting platforms. GPS navigation tools can replace foam for sprayers and planter/drill-disk markers for making parallel swaths across a field. Navigation systems help operators reduce skips and overlaps, especially when using methods that rely on visual estimation of swath distance and/or counting rows. This technology reduces the chance of misapplication of agrochemicals and has the potential to safeguard water quality. Also, GPS navigation can be used to keep implements in the same traffic pattern year-to-year (controlled traffic), thus minimizing adverse effects of implement traffic.

May 1, 2009 442-501
Precision Farming Tools: Global Positioning System (GPS)

Precision Farming. Modern agricultural management practices are changing from assuming homogenous fields to attempting to address field variability by dividing the field into smaller zones and managing these zones separately. Precision farming can be defined as the gathering of information dealing with spatial and temporal variation within a field and then using that information to manage inputs and practices (Precision Farming: A Comprehensive Approach, Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) publication 442-500). Precision farming is made possible by linking computers, on-the-go sensors, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), and other devices. This publication discusses GPS principles and the technology that makes it possible.

May 1, 2009 442-503
Precision Farming Tools: Soil Electrical Conductivity

Soil electrical conductivity (EC) is a measurement that correlates with soil properties that affect crop productivity, including soil texture, cation exchange capacity (CEC), drainage conditions, organic matter level, salinity, and subsoil characteristics. This publication discusses: 1) How, with field verification, soil EC can be related to specific soil properties that affect crop yield, such as topsoil depth, pH, salt concentrations, and available water-holding capacity; 2) Soil EC maps often visually correspond to patterns on yield maps and can help explain yield variation; and 3) Other uses of soil EC maps (Table 1), including developing management zones, guiding directed soil sampling, assigning variable rates of crop inputs, fine tuning NRCS soil maps, improving the placement and interpretation of on-farm tests, salinity diagnosis, and planning drainage remediation.

May 1, 2009 442-508
Precision Farming Tools: Variable-Rate Application

There are a number of questions that must be answered before establishing a site-specific crop management (SSCM) program. Many of these questions are economic, some are agronomic and environmental, and others are technology-related. This publication is intended to discuss variable-rate devices that are available, while providing an understanding of which technologies might best fit a cropping system and production management strategy.

Aug 1, 2011 442-505
Precision Farming Tools: Yield Monitor

Using yield monitors is the first step many producers take in precision farming (Precision Farming: A Comprehensive Approach, Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE) publication 442-500). A yield monitor, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, is an electronic tool that collects data on crop performance for a given year. The yield monitor for grain measures and records information such as grain flow, grain moisture, area covered, and location. Yields are automatically calculated. Yield monitors also are available for commodities such as peanuts, cotton, forage silage, and sugar beets. These monitors have some elements in common with grain-yield monitors. While the cost of a yield monitor is reasonable, the commitment of time and resources required to effectively use this technology can be significant.

May 1, 2009 442-502
Precision Farming: A Comprehensive Approach

Precision Farming (PF), also referred to as precision agriculture or variable rate technology, is the process used to vary management of crop production across a field. Midwestern farmers have been using PF technologies for several years and it is now becoming popular in Virginia. This publication introduces the principles and terminology used in PF. Crop producers can use this information to gain a working knowledge of PF and develop the ability to implement PF technologies in traditional crop production.

May 1, 2009 442-500
Predicting Tractor Diesel Fuel Consumption

Ability to predict tractor fuel consumption is very useful
for budgeting and management. The objective of
this factsheet is to develop relationships using field
measurements and Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory
results to estimate tractor fuel consumption. Using
these equations, farmers can estimate and compare the
fuel consumption for different operating and loading

Oct 14, 2014 442-073 (BSE-175P)
Preventing Falls In and Around Homes

Most people experience falls that sometimes result in potential life altering consequences. Falls occur in all types of settings including playgrounds, in and around the homes, and at work places. Irrespective of where they happen, it is generally recognized that falls are the leading cause of injury, treatment at emergency rooms, and a primary cause of accidental deaths among persons over the age of 65 years. Irrespective of sex, race, and ethnicity, the mortality from falls increases dramatically with age. More than 90% of hip fractures are caused by falls. The cost of hospitalization for injuries resulting from all types of falls was estimated to be in excess of $10B dollars annually in the U.S.

Jul 29, 2011 3307-1592
Preventing Secondary Injuries in Agricultural Workplaces Aug 8, 2014 442-085 (BSE-150P)
Preventing Work Place Falls

Most people experience falls that sometimes result in potential life altering consequences. Falls occur in all types of settings including playgrounds, in and around the homes, and at work places. Irrespective of where they happen, it is generally recognized that falls are the leading cause of injury, treatment at emergency rooms, and a primary cause of accidental deaths among persons over the age of 65 years. Irrespective of sex, race, and ethnicity, the mortality from falls increases dramatically with age. More than 90% of hip fractures are caused by falls. The cost of hospitalization for injuries resulting from all types of falls was estimated to be in excess of $10B dollars annually in the U.S.

Jul 29, 2011 3307-1593
Respiratory Protection in Agriculture

Farm workers can encounter a variety of respiratory problems ranging from temporary discomfort caused by allergic reactions to fatal asphyxiation. However, the risk of contracting serious lung diseases or death can be significantly decreased by using respiratory protection (fig. 1). See the sidebar for a list of farm work that requires respiratory protection.

Jul 1, 2014 442-601 (BSE-140P)
Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide Aug 12, 2014 BSE-47P (BSE-110P)
Safe Operation of Compact Tractors

Follow these safety tips and maintenance procedures for checking, servicing, and operating compact tractors to extend their life and reduce breakdowns and accidents.

Lawn and turf maintenance is easier because of modern compact tractors, but carelessness can cause trouble. Most tractors used for grounds care can be classified into three size groups: 1) riding lawn mowers (3 to 8 horsepower), which are fitted with a mower; these usually have no attachments, 2) lawn and garden or compact tractors (7 to 40 horsepower) to which a variety of tools and equipment can be mounted, and 3) large tractors (40 to 80 horsepower), which have a low center of gravity for working slopes and can be equipped with a variety of attachments.

Regardless of size, all power units are potentially hazardous if improperly maintained or operated. Observing all safety precautions before, during, and after tractor operation is essential to operator safety.

Aug 8, 2014 442-093 (BSE-148P)
Tractor Safety: Lawn Care Training Guide, Safe Use of Tractors

 Tractors are versatile equipment used in a variety of jobs ranging from hauling goods to lawn care to agriculture. While they are extremely versatile, they can be very dangerous unless they are used with care following safe practices. Accidents resulting in fatalities and severe injuries are very common during tractor use. The National Safety Council estimated that approximately 36 percent of all the agricultural fatalities in 1997 involved a tractor. Published data also show that farm accidents cause more than 100 deaths and about 2,600 serious injuries among children annually. Tractors account for about 41 percent of the accidental deaths among children under 15 years of age. In spite of these convincing data, a large number of operators continue to follow unsafe practices that can cause serious accidents. 

Sep 25, 2014 BSE-48NP (BSE-111P)
Tractor-Mounted Inclined Lifts Jan 8, 2013 BSE-60NP
Tractor-Mounted Lifts Jan 8, 2013 BSE-58NP
Tractor-Mounted Vertical Lifts Jan 8, 2013 BSE-59NP
Using Tractor Test Data for Selecting Farm Tractors Mar 11, 2015 442-072 (BSE-176P)
Utility Type Vehicles: UTV Maintenance and Safe Use Lawn Care Training Guide Jun 6, 2014 BSE-49NP (BSE-108P)
Virginia Agriculture - Relating to Farmers

"This is a review of the agrciulture facts within Virginia.  There are more than 47,000 farms in Virginia.  The number of farms in the state has been steadily decreasing and in five decades the number has declined over 50%.   Average size of farms in the commonwealth is 181 acres and it covers approximately 8.1 million acres or about 32% of Virginia’s total land area. ."

May 31, 2011 3104-1591
“Gear Up and Throttle Down” to Save Fuel
“Gear-up and throttle-down” (GUTD) is a fuel-saving practice that can be used for saving fuel when drawbar loads are lighter (<75 percent of rated power) and PTO (power takeoff) speed can be reduced.
Oct 9, 2014 442-450 (BSE-177P)