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Eric R. Day

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see. Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands. Order: Homoptera, Family: Aphididae
Nov 3, 2014 444-220 (ENTO-82NP)
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control

Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.

Nov 13, 2014 444-018
Asian Needle Ant Jan 7, 2013 ENTO-29NP
Asparagus Beetles

Two species of asparagus beetles are found in Virginia, the asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi (L.), and the spotted asparagus beetle Crioceris duodecimpunctata (L.). Adults of the asparagus beetle are 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) long, metallic blue to black, and have wing covers with three or four white spots and reddish margins. The thorax is red and usually marked with two black spots. The spotted asparagus beetle is about 1/3 inch (8.3 mm) long and orange with 12 spots on its wing covers. Larvae of both are olive green to dark gray with a black heads and legs. Larvae measure about 6/100 inch (1.5 mm) at hatching, and as they develop they become plump and attain a length of about 1/3 inch (8 mm). Both have eggs that are approximately 4/100 inch (1 mm) long, oblong, shiny, black,\ and are attached by one end to asparagus spears.

May 1, 2009 444-620
Asparagus Beetles on Asparagus

The asparagus beetle is a sporadic pest that can be aggravating for asparagus growers throughout Virginia. The shoot damage not only reduces the quality of the spears but this beetle is also unique in the pest world, as it is an insect that is controlled because the eggs laid on the shoots is objectionable to consumers. With a little background on this pest most growers are able develop an effective pest management program.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1352
Bagworm Nov 3, 2014 2808-1008 (ENTO-83NP)
Baldfaced Hornet Nov 3, 2014 3006-1449 (ENTO-84NP)
Balsam Twig Aphid Mar 3, 2015 2907-1401 (ENTO-117NP)
Balsam Woolly Adelgid Jun 16, 2010 3006-1452
Bark Beetles
Species identification is difficult because the adult beetles of the various species are very similar, cylindrical and hard-shelled. Over 600 species in the sub-family. Adult beetles are between 1/8 and 1/3 inch long. Nearly all bark beetles are black or brown. Bark beetles are in the Order: Coleoptera, Family: Curculionidae, Sub Family: Scolytinae.
Nov 10, 2014 444-216 (ENTO-85NP)
Beet Webworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1542
Black Vine Weevil

Plants Attacked: The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.

Description of Damage: Two kinds of damage are conspicuous: Adults chew marginal notches in leaves, causing damage that quite often is confused with a disease or chemical injury. The adults feed from the outer margin of the leaf inward, creating characteristic notches, and these notches can be used as an early indicator of potential larvae in the soil. Adults cut notches on the margins only; they never create holes on the center of the leaf. On yew, needles nearer to the main trunk, down inside of the shrub, show notching and feeding scars. Broadleaved evergreens exhibit notching similar to that caused by the two-banded Japanese weevil and Fullers rose beetle. Larvae, the most destructive form of this weevil, feed on roots. When large numbers of larvae are feeding on the roots, the plants will wilt, turn brown, and die.

Nov 14, 2014 444-210 (ENTO-86NP)
Blister Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1543
Boxelder bug, Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus Jan 24, 2011 3101-1525
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Homoptera: Penatomidae: Halyomorpha halys

Distribution and Hosts

The brown marmorated stink bug, (BMSB), is an invasive insect not native to North America. It was accidentally introduced near Allentown, PA in 1996 and has spread since that time. It was found in Virginia in 2004 and by 2010, it was found throughout most of the Commonwealth. The BMSB feeds on a wide range of tree fruits and seedpods as well as many vegetables including tomatoes, peppers, beans, cucurbits, and sweet corn. High densities of this pest species have also been seen in soybeans and corn. However, so far in Virginia, the most severely damaged crops have been tree fruit (apples and peaches). For homeowners, it is mainly a nuisance pest, as it invades houses in the winter looking for a place to over-winter. For businesses such as hotels and restaurants and other commercial settings with public interface, the presence of high numbers of these bugs in the fall can have economic consequences.

May 21, 2009 2902-1100
Buck Moth Oct 8, 2012 ENTO-18NP
Bumble Bee - Hymenoptera, Apidae May 13, 2011 3104-1572
Cabbage Looper Apr 25, 2011 3104-1544
Carpenter Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus spp. May 13, 2011 3104-1573
Carpenter Bee Jun 11, 2010 3006-1450
Carpet Beetles - Coleoptera: Dermestidae May 16, 2011 3104-1588
Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar

Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa, their only host. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the activity of parasites.

Nov 14, 2014 2911-1421 (ENTO-88NP)
Celery Leaftier Apr 25, 2011 3104-1545
Centipede - Chilopoda May 13, 2011 3104-1574
Click Beetle - Coleoptera: Elateridae May 13, 2011 3104-1575
Clothes Moths - Lepidoptera: Tineidae May 13, 2011 3104-1576
Colorado Potato Beetle

Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Size: Adults are ~ 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide; mature larvae are 1/2 inch long.

Color: The adult thorax is orange with black spots and the wing covers have five yellowish white and five black alternating stripes running lengthwise (Fig. 1); the larvae are reddish in color with two rows of black spots along each side (Fig. 2); and eggs are yellow (Fig. 3).

Description: The adult beetle is convex above; larvae are smooth, soft-bodied, and humpbacked; and individual eggs somewhat resemble small sausages standing on end.

May 1, 2009 444-012
Common Ticks of Virginia Mar 3, 2015 2906-1396 (ENTO-116NP)
Confused Flour Beetle - Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Tribolium confusum May 13, 2011 3104-1577
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans

Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.

Nov 13, 2014 444-770
Corn Earworm on Vegetables Mar 22, 2011 3103-1537
Cottony Maple Scale

Cottony Maple Scale (Homoptera: Coccidae), Pulvinaria innumerabilis

PLANTS ATTACKED: Maples and dogwood primarily, but also many woody ornamentals.

Nov 14, 2014 2808-1011 (ENTO-89NP)
Cucumber Beetles

Plants Attacked: Cucumber, cantaloupe, winter squash, pumpkin, gourd, summer squash, and watermelon, as well as many other species of cucurbits. Cucumber beetles may also feed on beans, corn, peanuts, potatoes, and other crops.

May 1, 2009 2808-1009
Cutworms Apr 25, 2011 3104-1547
Dogwood Borer
Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.
Nov 18, 2014 2808-1010 (ENTO-90NP)
Dogwood Twig Borer

The larvae tunnel in live twigs and feed down the center of the branch, making a long series of closely placed round holes for the exudation of frass. Periodically, the larvae cut off portions of the twig from within and continue to feed inside the twig on the green wood working their way down.

Nov 18, 2014 444-625 (ENTO-91NP)
Drugstore and Cigarette Beetles, Drugstore Beetle: Coleoptera: Anobiidae, Stegobium paniceum Cigarette Beetle: Coleoptera: Anobiidae, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) Jan 24, 2011 3101-1526
Earwigs, Dermaptera: Forficulidae Jan 24, 2011 3101-1527
Eastern Tent Caterpillar

Larvae feed in the inner bark of live, healthy dogwood trees. The damaged area of the trunk or branch swells and eventually the bark will fall off. Leaves turning red prematurely in mid-summer on a lone branch are an early sign of dogwood borers. Infested branches and limbs will die. Dogwood borers often will not kill the tree in the first year, but reinfestation in successive years will. Plants attacked include: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow.

Nov 18, 2014 444-274 (ENTO-92NP)
Eggplant Lace Bug Apr 25, 2011 3104-1548
Emerald Ash Borer

Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

Plants Attacked: Emerald ash borer (EAB) attacks all species of ash trees that grow in Virginia. Only Asian species of ash trees have shown any resistance to this pest.

May 1, 2009 2904-1290
Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners Sep 4, 2014 ENTO-76NP
Euonymus Scale
Eggs are laid early in the spring and hatch in late May or early June. The crawlers settle quickly and produce a second brood by mid-July. A third brood is produced in October. There is continuous overlapping of broods, so that all stages may be found during favorable conditions. Two to three-plus generations per year may occur in Virginia. The overwintering stage is the adult female.
Nov 21, 2014 444-277 (ENTO-93NP)
European Corn Borer

Description of Damage

European corn borer (ECB) is a major pest of corn grown for grain in Virginia. This pest is found throughout the commonwealth, but its population density fluctuates from year to year in a given locality. Typical damage to corn plants caused by this insect are reduced plant vigor leading to subsequent ear drop and stalk lodging.


When fully grown, ECB larvae are 3/4 to 1 inch in length and creamy-white to pink in color. The larval head capsule is dark brown and, on top of each abdominal ring or segment, there are several small dark brown or black spots. (Figure 1)
May 1, 2009 444-232
European Hornet Mar 12, 2015 2911-1422 (ENTO-123NP)
Fall Webworm

Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.

Nov 21, 2014 2808-1013 (ENTO-94NP)
Field Guide to Stink Bugs Nov 17, 2014 444-356 (ENTO-68)
Firebrat - Thysanura: Lepismatidae May 13, 2011 3104-1578
Flea Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1549
Fungus Gnat - Diptera: Sciaridae May 13, 2011 3104-1579
Gardening and Your Health: Ticks

During early spring and summer, as the weather warms up and the garden springs back to life from its winter dormancy, many gardeners -- and ticks -- eagerly return to their outdoor activities. Gardeners should be aware of the risks and know how to protect themselves from becoming hosts to disease-carrying ticks.

May 1, 2009 426-066
Giant Resin Bee

Size: about 0.75 inch (1.9 cm) Color: Black and yellow-brown Giant resin bees are large with a cylindrical body and large jaws. They have a dark head and abdomen with yellow-brown hair on the face, thorax, and the first segment of the abdomen behind the "waist." The wings are a transparent brown color that darkens toward the tips. Male giant resin bees have a truncated, squared abdomen while the females have a more tapered, pointed abdomen. Giant resin bees can be distinguished from bumblebees and carpenter bees by their cylindrical bodies and the appearance of their abdomens. Giant resin bees do not have hairy abdomens like bumblebees, nor are their abdomens shiny like carpenter bees. Hymenoptera: Megachilidae Megachile sculpturalis Smith.

Dec 10, 2014 444-206 (ENTO-96NP)
Gloomy Scale Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-44NP
Grasshoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1550
Green Stink Bug Apr 11, 2014 ENTO-67NP
Hag Moth Caterpillar Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-19NP
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Jun 11, 2010 3006-1451
Hickory Horned Devil Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-20NP
Hornworms on Tomato Apr 25, 2011 3104-1551
House Fly Maggot - Diptera: Muscidae May 13, 2011 3104-1580
Imported Cabbageworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1552
Indian Meal Moth - Lepidoptera: Pyralidae May 13, 2011 3104-1582
Insect Identification Lab Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-45NP
Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show Mar 6, 2015 2909-1415 (ENTO-122NP)
Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show Mar 6, 2015 2909-1414 (ENTO-121NP)
Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-42NP
Japanese Beetle

The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United States. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.

Dec 11, 2014 2902-1101 (ENTO-97NP)
Japanese Weevil

The Japanese weevil has a long list of hosts, but is especially found on cherry laurel, broad-leaved evergreens, pyracantha, privet, barberry, euonymus, and many others. This weevil has also damaged vegetable and field crops in Virginia.

Dec 11, 2014 444-624 (ENTO-98NP)
Lace Bugs - Hemiptera: Tingidae May 13, 2011 3104-1581
Leafhoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1553
Leafminers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1554
Lilac Borer/Ash Borer

The adult has clear wings and is wasp-like in appearance. Size: The moth is about 1 inch long with a wingspan of 1 1/2 inches. Color: The fore wings are brown or chocolate color and the hind wings are clear with a dark border. The larvae are pure white worms with brown heads. Order: Lepidoptera Family: Sesiidae Species: Podosesia syringae (Harris).

Dec 11, 2014 444-278 (ENTO-99NP)
Locust Leafminer, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg) Jan 25, 2011 3101-1528
Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers

Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more. Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Adults are called longhorned beetles because of their long and distinctive 11-segmented antennae, often longer than the beetle's body. The thorax and wing covers on some species bear small, stout spines. Roundheaded borers (larvae) are elongate, cylindrical, and have large gnawing mandibles. The name roundheaded borer refers to the enlarged thorax directly behind the head. Order: Coleoptera, Family: Cerambycidae.

Dec 11, 2014 444-215 (ENTO-100NP)
Magnolia Soft Scale
Heavy magnolia soft scale infestations cause stunting of twigs and undersize leaves, visibly weakening the trees. Small trees may be killed. Large trees lose branches and tree shape may become irregular.
Dec 11, 2014 444-623 (ENTO-101NP)
Mexican Bean Beetle Apr 25, 2011 3104-1555
Millipedes Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-43NP
Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia

Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk.  Once inside, insecticides are not recommended except for severe cases. Sweep up with a broom and dustpan all beetles that collect in windowsills and on walls. Beetles can also be picked up with a vacuum cleaner but bags will need to be discarded so that beetles do not escape.

Dec 11, 2014 444-275 (ENTO-102NP)
Obscure Scale - Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Melanaspis obscura (Comstock) May 13, 2011 3104-1583
Onion Thrips Apr 25, 2011 3104-1556
Pales Weevil

Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.

Dec 11, 2014 2902-1102 (ENTO-103NP)
Parasitic Wasps Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-74NP
Parsleyworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1557
Pepper Weevil Apr 25, 2011 3104-1558
Periodical Cicada

In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.

Feb 25, 2015 444-276 (ENTO-105NP)
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Pickleworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1559
Pine Bark Adelgid Mar 6, 2015 2907-1402 (ENTO-120NP)
Pine Needle Scale Mar 3, 2015 2907-1400 (ENTO-118NP)
Pine Sawyers Mar 5, 2015 2907-1399 (ENTO-119NP)
Pine Shoot Beetle Apr 27, 2015 444-291 (ENTO-149NP)
Pine Tortoise Scale, Hemiptera: Coccidae, Toumeyella numismaticum Jan 25, 2011 3101-1529
Potato Tuberworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1560
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes Feb 12, 2015 450-236 (PPWS-48P)
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes Feb 18, 2015 450-237 (PPWS-47P)
Raspberry Crown Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1561
Redheaded Pine Sawfly Jun 16, 2010 3006-1453
Rhubarb Curculio Apr 25, 2011 3104-1563
Rose Chafer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1564
Rose Rosette Disease Sep 17, 2012 450-620 (PPWS-10P)
Rose Scale Apr 25, 2011 3104-1565
Sap Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1546
Sawtoothed Grain Beetle - Coleoptera: Silvanidae May 13, 2011 3104-1584
Scale Insects Feb 26, 2015 2808-1012 (ENTO-106NP)
Silverfish and Firebrats Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-24NP
Spider Mites Feb 26, 2015 444-221 (ENTO-107NP)
Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-73NP
Springtails Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-23NP
Spruce Spider Mite Mar 2, 2015 444-235 (ENTO-108NP)
Squash Vine Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1566
Stalk Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1567
Stinging Caterpillars: Slug Caterpillars and Flannel Moths Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-75NP
Stink Bugs

Adults and nymphs suck sap, feeding primarily on buds and seedpods. This feeding results in weakened plants and malformed buds and fruit. On okra and bean pods, the damage appears as pimples or wart-like growths. On tomatoes and peppers, white marks, often resembling halos, appear on the fruit. On pecans and beans, the damage shows up as brown spots on the nutmeat or seed. On some tree fruit, stink bugs can cause a deforming condition called cat facing on the fruit.

May 1, 2009 444-621
Striped Cucumber Beetle Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-61NP
Tarnished Plant Bug Apr 25, 2011 3104-1568
Thrips Mar 3, 2015 444-281 (ENTO-110NP)
Tulip Tree Leaf Miner (Sassafras Weevil) Mar 3, 2015 444-279 (ENTO-111NP)
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner Mar 16, 2015 2911-1423 (ENTO-124NP)
Vegetable Weevil Apr 25, 2011 3104-1569
Velvet Ants Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-22NP
Virginia Pine Sawfly Mar 16, 2015 2911-1424 (ENTO-125NP)
Wax Scale Mar 3, 2015 444-622 (ENTO-112NP)
Wheel Bug - Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Arilus cristatus May 13, 2011 3104-1585
White Grubs in Vegetable Gardens Apr 25, 2011 3104-1570
White Pine Weevil Mar 3, 2015 444-270 (ENTO-113NP)
Whiteflies Mar 3, 2015 444-280 (ENTO-114NP)
Whitefringed Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1571
Wolf Spider - Araneae: Lycosidae May 13, 2011 3104-1586
Yellow Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae May 13, 2011 3104-1587
Yellowjackets Sep 26, 2013 ENTO-49NP