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Eric R. Day

Title Summary Date ID Author(s)
Aphids
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see.

Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands.

May 1, 2009 444-220
Aphids in Virginia Small Grains: Life Cycles, Damage and Control

Four species of aphids attack small grains in Virginia -- greenbug, corn leaf aphid, bird cherry-oat aphid, and English grain aphid. In general, these aphids are small pear-shaped insects (1/16 to 1/8 inch long) that are green to nearly black, or sometimes pinkish in color. Immature aphids look just like adults except smaller. Both winged and wing-less forms can occur in the same colony. All grain aphids have a pair of conicles, tailpipe-like projections, on the top side of the tail end. Aphids feed singly or in colonies on upper and lower leaf surfaces and stems. They feed near plant bases when plants are young or during cold weather, and on upper-canopy leaves, stems, and even grain heads later in the season.

May 1, 2009 444-018
Asian Needle Ant Jan 7, 2013 ENTO-29NP
Asparagus Beetles

Two species of asparagus beetles are found in Virginia, the asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi (L.), and the spotted asparagus beetle Crioceris duodecimpunctata (L.). Adults of the asparagus beetle are 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) long, metallic blue to black, and have wing covers with three or four white spots and reddish margins. The thorax is red and usually marked with two black spots. The spotted asparagus beetle is about 1/3 inch (8.3 mm) long and orange with 12 spots on its wing covers. Larvae of both are olive green to dark gray with a black heads and legs. Larvae measure about 6/100 inch (1.5 mm) at hatching, and as they develop they become plump and attain a length of about 1/3 inch (8 mm). Both have eggs that are approximately 4/100 inch (1 mm) long, oblong, shiny, black,\ and are attached by one end to asparagus spears.

May 1, 2009 444-620
Asparagus Beetles on Asparagus

The asparagus beetle is a sporadic pest that can be aggravating for asparagus growers throughout Virginia. The shoot damage not only reduces the quality of the spears but this beetle is also unique in the pest world, as it is an insect that is controlled because the eggs laid on the shoots is objectionable to consumers. With a little background on this pest most growers are able develop an effective pest management program.

Jul 29, 2009 2906-1352
BALSAM TWIG APHID Homoptera: Aphididae, Mindarus abietinus Aug 5, 2009 2907-1401
Bagworm

Lepidoptera: Psychidae, Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis

Plants Attacked: Juniper, arborvitae, other cedars, pine, hemlock, spruce, Chinese elm, honeylocust, primarily. Also on crabapple, maple, sycamore, box elder, willow, linden, poplar, and many others.

May 1, 2009 2808-1008
Baldfaced Hornet Jun 11, 2010 3006-1449
Balsam Woolly Adelgid Jun 16, 2010 3006-1452
Bark Beetles

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Cerambycidae

Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more.

Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray.

May 1, 2009 444-216
Beet Webworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1542
Black Vine Weevil

Plants Attacked

The adults feed on a wide variety of evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous plants. The larval form is destructive on yew (taxus), hemlock, rhododendron, and several other broad-leaved evergreens. Adults and larvae will sometimes feed on strawberry and impatiens.

Description of Damage

Two kinds of damage are conspicuous: Adults chew marginal notches in leaves, causing damage that quite often is confused with a disease or chemical injury. The adults feed from the outer margin of the leaf inward, creating characteristic notches, and these notches can be used as an early indicator of potential larvae in the soil. Adults cut notches on the margins only; they never create holes on the center of the leaf.
May 1, 2009 444-210
Blister Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1543
Boxelder bug, Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, Leptocoris trivittatus Jan 24, 2011 3101-1525
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Homoptera: Penatomidae: Halyomorpha halys

Distribution and Hosts

The brown marmorated stink bug, (BMSB), is an invasive insect not native to North America. It was accidentally introduced near Allentown, PA in 1996 and has spread since that time. It was found in Virginia in 2004 and by 2010, it was found throughout most of the Commonwealth. The BMSB feeds on a wide range of tree fruits and seedpods as well as many vegetables including tomatoes, peppers, beans, cucurbits, and sweet corn. High densities of this pest species have also been seen in soybeans and corn. However, so far in Virginia, the most severely damaged crops have been tree fruit (apples and peaches). For homeowners, it is mainly a nuisance pest, as it invades houses in the winter looking for a place to over-winter. For businesses such as hotels and restaurants and other commercial settings with public interface, the presence of high numbers of these bugs in the fall can have economic consequences.

May 21, 2009 2902-1100
Buck Moth Oct 8, 2012 ENTO-18NP
Bumble Bee - Hymenoptera, Apidae May 13, 2011 3104-1572
Cabbage Looper Apr 25, 2011 3104-1544
Carpenter Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Camponotus spp. May 13, 2011 3104-1573
Carpenter Bee Jun 11, 2010 3006-1450
Carpet Beetles - Coleoptera: Dermestidae May 16, 2011 3104-1588
Catalpa Sphinx Caterpillar

Catalpa sphinx caterpillars, also known as “Catalpa worms”, are major defoliators of catalpa. With their chewing mouthparts, they strip away large portions of the leaves. In heavy infestations they can completely defoliate the entire tree. Apparently trees on high ground with poor soil are rarely, if ever, attacked. In some years, depending on the region, many trees will have all their leaves stripped away by the end of the summer. This may be followed by years with no defoliation observed at all. The fluctuation between outbreak and no defoliation is largely due to the
activity of parasites.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1421
Celery Leaftier Apr 25, 2011 3104-1545
Centipede - Chilopoda May 13, 2011 3104-1574
Click Beetle - Coleoptera: Elateridae May 13, 2011 3104-1575
Clothes Moths - Lepidoptera: Tineidae May 13, 2011 3104-1576
Colorado Potato Beetle

Scientific Name: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

Size: Adults are ~ 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide; mature larvae are 1/2 inch long.

Color: The adult thorax is orange with black spots and the wing covers have five yellowish white and five black alternating stripes running lengthwise (Fig. 1); the larvae are reddish in color with two rows of black spots along each side (Fig. 2); and eggs are yellow (Fig. 3).

Description: The adult beetle is convex above; larvae are smooth, soft-bodied, and humpbacked; and individual eggs somewhat resemble small sausages standing on end.

May 1, 2009 444-012
Common Ticks of Virginia Jul 2, 2009 2906-1396
Confused Flour Beetle - Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, Tribolium confusum May 13, 2011 3104-1577
Corn Earworm Biology and Management in Soybeans

Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, is the most common and destructive insect pest of soybeans grown in Virginia. Although infestation severity varies, about one-third of our acreage is treated annually. This costs farmers 1.5 to 2 million dollars annually, and requires the application of many pounds of insecticide to crop lands. We may never eliminate this pest from Virginia soybeans, but knowledge of the biology and use of best management practices can help limit insecticide controls to those fields that meet economic threshold criteria. This publication provides current information on corn earworm biology, prediction of outbreaks, pest advisories, scouting procedures, and recently revised economic thresholds.

May 1, 2009 444-770
Corn Earworm on Vegetables Mar 22, 2011 3103-1537
Cottony Maple Scale

Cottony Maple Scale (Homoptera: Coccidae), Pulvinaria innumerabilis

PLANTS ATTACKED: Maples and dogwood primarily, but also many woody ornamentals.

May 1, 2009 2808-1011
Cucumber Beetles

Plants Attacked: Cucumber, cantaloupe, winter squash, pumpkin, gourd, summer squash, and watermelon, as well as many other species of cucurbits. Cucumber beetles may also feed on beans, corn, peanuts, potatoes, and other crops.

May 1, 2009 2808-1009
Cutworms Apr 25, 2011 3104-1547
Dogwood Borer

Lepidoptera: Sesiidae, Synanthedon scitula

PLANTS ATTACKED: Dogwood, pecan, elm, hickory, and willow

May 1, 2009 2808-1010
Dogwood Twig Borer

Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Obrea tripunctata

Plants Attacked

Elm, dogwood, viburnum, and many fruit trees.

Description of Damage

The larvae tunnel in live twigs and feed down the center of the branch, making a long series of closely placed round holes for the exudation of frass. Periodically, the larvae cut off portions of the twig from within and continue to feed inside the twig on the green wood working their way down.

May 1, 2009 444-625
Drugstore and Cigarette Beetles, Drugstore Beetle: Coleoptera: Anobiidae, Stegobium paniceum Cigarette Beetle: Coleoptera: Anobiidae, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) Jan 24, 2011 3101-1526
Earwigs, Dermaptera: Forficulidae Jan 24, 2011 3101-1527
Eastern Tent Caterpillar

The larval or caterpillar stage is brown and is quite hairy. It has a white stripe running down the back that is bordered by yellow brown. In addition the caterpillar has a row of blue spots down each side. The adult moth is a dark tan color with two pale stripes on each of the front wings. Although similar they are not the same insect as a gypsy moth.

May 1, 2009 444-274
Eggplant Lace Bug Apr 25, 2011 3104-1548
Emerald Ash Borer

Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

Plants Attacked: Emerald ash borer (EAB) attacks all species of ash trees that grow in Virginia. Only Asian species of ash trees have shown any resistance to this pest.

May 1, 2009 2904-1290
Emerald Ash Borer Control for Foresters and Landowners Sep 4, 2014 ENTO-76NP
Euonymus Scale
Female scales have a pear-shaped, dark brown scale covering. Males are more slender than the females and are white with a yellow cap on one end. The male scale covering has three ridges running its length. Both sexes are easily observable on plants and are normally 1/16 inch long. All stages are yellow when observed beneath the scale covering.
May 1, 2009 444-277
European Corn Borer

Description of Damage

European corn borer (ECB) is a major pest of corn grown for grain in Virginia. This pest is found throughout the commonwealth, but its population density fluctuates from year to year in a given locality. Typical damage to corn plants caused by this insect are reduced plant vigor leading to subsequent ear drop and stalk lodging.


Identification

When fully grown, ECB larvae are 3/4 to 1 inch in length and creamy-white to pink in color. The larval head capsule is dark brown and, on top of each abdominal ring or segment, there are several small dark brown or black spots. (Figure 1)
May 1, 2009 444-232
European Hornet

The European hornet is a stout hornet approximately 1-inch long. The color of the head and thorax is dark reddish brown with deep yellow and brown black markings on the abdomen. The  markings on the abdomen are similar to the markings found on yellow jackets. The European hornet resembles the cicada killer wasp but is more robust and has more hair on the thorax and
abdomen (but is not as hairy as a bee).

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1422
Fall Webworm

Distribution and Hosts Native to North America, the fall webworm occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada. Its hosts include more than 100 species of deciduous forest, shade, and fruit trees, with preferences varying from region to region.

May 1, 2009 2808-1013
Firebrat - Thysanura: Lepismatidae May 13, 2011 3104-1578
Flea Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1549
Fungus Gnat - Diptera: Sciaridae May 13, 2011 3104-1579
Gardening and Your Health: Ticks

During early spring and summer, as the weather warms up and the garden springs back to life from its winter dormancy, many gardeners -- and ticks -- eagerly return to their outdoor activities. Gardeners should be aware of the risks and know how to protect themselves from becoming hosts to disease-carrying ticks.

May 1, 2009 426-066
Gloomy Scale Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-44NP
Grasshoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1550
Green Stink Bug Apr 11, 2014 ENTO-67NP
Hag Moth Caterpillar Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-19NP
Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Jun 11, 2010 3006-1451
Hickory Horned Devil Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-20NP
Hornworms on Tomato Apr 25, 2011 3104-1551
House Fly Maggot - Diptera: Muscidae May 13, 2011 3104-1580
Imported Cabbageworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1552
Indian Meal Moth - Lepidoptera: Pyralidae May 13, 2011 3104-1582
Insect Identification Lab Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-45NP
Insect Pests of Christmas Trees Slide Show Oct 1, 2009 2909-1415
Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants Slide Show Sep 25, 2009 2909-1414
Insect and Mite Pests of Boxwood Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-42NP
Japanese Beetle

Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Popillia japonica

Distribution:  The Japanese beetle is found throughout Virginia and in most of the Eastern United Stages. In regions west of the Mississippi it is found in isolated pockets. Japanese beetles were first found in New Jersey in 1916 and have spread from that point since. The Japanese beetle has been well established in Virginia since the early 1970’s.

May 1, 2009 2902-1101
Japanese Weevil

Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus

Plants Attacked

The Japanese weevil has a long list of hosts, but is especially found on cherry laurel, broad-leaved evergreens, pyracantha, privet, barberry, euonymus, and many others.

Description of Damage

Foliage is more or less chewed, beginning as marginal notches and increasing to large rounded sections of the leaves being consumed. Holes are always cut inward from the margin, never in the inner part of the leaf. Larvae feed on roots of plants in the soil, but their habits are not well known, nor is the extent of the injury they produce. Injury is not distinguishable from that caused by black vine weevil, fullers rose beetle, and other species.

May 1, 2009 444-624
Lace Bugs - Hemiptera: Tingidae May 13, 2011 3104-1581
Leafhoppers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1553
Leafminers Apr 25, 2011 3104-1554
Lilac Borer/Ash Borer

Life Cycle: As winter passes, the immature larvae is in the stem of lilac and ash near the surface of the soil. Feeding and continued development begins in early spring and is completed by early summer. It then pupates in the stems and in three weeks emerges as the adult (early May through early July). Oviposition occurs shortly after emergence and mating. The eggs are laid about the base of lilac canes or on ash stems. The hatching larvae bore into the host and become half grown by cold weather. There is one generation per year.

May 1, 2009 444-278
Locust Leafminer, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Odontota dorsalis (Thunberg) Jan 25, 2011 3101-1528
Longhorned Beetles/Roundheaded Borers

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Cerambycidae

Size: Larvae up to 3 1/4 inches (80mm) or more.

Color: Adult longhorned beetles are medium to large cylindrical beetles, usually brown, reddish brown, or black in color. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray. Larvae (roundheaded borers) are brown, reddish brown, or black. They are sometimes mottled or banded with white or gray.

May 1, 2009 444-215
Magnolia Soft Scale

Homoptera: Coccidae, Neolecanium carnuparuum

Plants Attacked

Magnolia

Description of Damage

Heavy magnolia soft scale infestations cause stunting of twigs and undersize leaves, visibly weakening the trees. Small trees may be killed. Large trees lose branches and tree shape may become irregular.

May 1, 2009 444-623
Mexican Bean Beetle Apr 25, 2011 3104-1555
Millipedes Sep 25, 2013 ENTO-43NP
Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle in Virginia

Multicolored Asian Lady beetles enter the house through small openings around windows, doors, and utility access points. In addition, they can enter the house by cracks in the siding and trim and through attic vents. Sealing those entry sites is the best method to keep them from becoming indoor pests later. Conduct a thorough energy audit of your house, as places where cold air can enter the house are places where this lady beetle can gain access. Fill all cracks and leaks with a fine quality silicone or silicone-latex caulk.

May 1, 2009 444-275
Obscure Scale - Hemiptera: Diaspididae, Melanaspis obscura (Comstock) May 13, 2011 3104-1583
Onion Thrips Apr 25, 2011 3104-1556
PINE NEEDLE SCALE Homoptera: Diaspididae, Phenaeaspis pinifoliae Aug 5, 2009 2907-1400
PINE SAWYERS (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Monochamus sp.) Aug 5, 2009
Pales Weevil

Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Hylobius pales (Herbst)

Plants Attacked: Pales weevil feeds on all pines within its range. It will also feed, although to a lesser extent, on Douglas-fir, fir, hemlock, juniper, larch, northern white-cedar, and spruce.

May 1, 2009 2902-1102
Parasitic Wasps Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-74NP
Parsleyworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1557
Pepper Weevil Apr 25, 2011 3104-1558
Periodical Cicada

In Virginia both the 17-and 13-year cicadas damage many ornamental and hardwood trees. Oaks are commonly attacked but the most seriously damaged are newly planted fruit and ornamental trees such as apple, dogwood, peach, hickory, cherry, and pear. Pines and other conifers are not commonly attacked.

May 1, 2009 444-276
Pest Monitoring Calendar for Home Lawns in Virginia May 1, 2009 430-524
Pickleworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1559
Pine Bark Adelgid: Hemiptera Adelgidae: Pineus strobi (Htg.) Aug 5, 2009 2907-1402
Pine Shoot Beetle

Order: Coleoptera

Family: Scolytidae

Species: Tomicus piniperda (Linnaeus)

Size: The adults are 1/8 to 1/4 inch long. The larvae are legless and can be up to 1/4 inch long.

Color: Pine shoot beetles are dark brown. The larvae have a dark brown head and creamy white body.

Description: Pine shoot beetles are in the same family as bark beetles and resemble bark beetles in appearance with their cylindrical shape.

May 1, 2009 444-291
Pine Tortoise Scale, Hemiptera: Coccidae, Toumeyella numismaticum Jan 25, 2011 3101-1529
Potato Tuberworm Apr 25, 2011 3104-1560
Problem-free Shrubs for Virginia Landscapes May 1, 2009 450-236
Problem-free Trees for Virginia Landscapes May 1, 2009 450-237
Raspberry Crown Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1561
Redheaded Pine Sawfly Jun 16, 2010 3006-1453
Rhubarb Curculio Apr 25, 2011 3104-1563
Rose Chafer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1564
Rose Rosette Disease Sep 17, 2012 450-620 (PPWS-10P)
Rose Scale Apr 25, 2011 3104-1565
Sap Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1546
Sawtoothed Grain Beetle - Coleoptera: Silvanidae May 13, 2011 3104-1584
Scale Insects

Scale insects are a peculiar group and look quite different from the typical insects we encounter day to day. Small, immobile, with no visible legs or antennae, they resemble individual fish scales pressed tightly against the plant on which they are feeding. There are over l50 different kinds of scales in Virginia. Many are common and serious pests of trees, shrubs, and indoor plants.

May 1, 2009 2808-1012
Silverfish and Firebrats Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-24NP
Spider Mites
Aphids, or plant lice, are small, soft-bodied insects. There are hundreds of different species of aphids, some of which attack only one host plant while others attack numerous hosts. Most aphids are about 1/10 inch long (2.54 mm), and though green and black are the most common colors, they may be gray, brown, pink, red, yellow, or lavender. A characteristic common to all is the presence of two tubes, called cornicles, on the back ends of their bodies. The cornicles secrete defensive substances. In some species they are quite long, while in others they are very short and difficult to see.

Aphids feed in clusters and generally prefer new, succulent shoots or young leaves. Some species, known as wooly aphids, are covered with white, waxy filaments, which they produce from special glands.

May 1, 2009 444-221
Spiders of Medical Concern in Virginia Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-73NP
Springtails Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-23NP
Spruce Spider Mite

Distribution and Hosts

The spruce spider mite  (Acari: Tetranychidae, Oligonychus unuguis (Jacobi)) lives in all areas of Virginia and is widely distributed throughout the temperate regions of the United States and Canada. It attacks spruce, arborvitae, juniper, hemlock, pine, Douglas fir, Fraser fir, and larch, among others.
May 1, 2009 444-235
Squash Vine Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1566
Stalk Borer Apr 25, 2011 3104-1567
Stinging Caterpillars: Slug Caterpillars and Flannel Moths Aug 8, 2014 ENTO-75NP
Stink Bugs

Adults and nymphs suck sap, feeding primarily on buds and seedpods. This feeding results in weakened plants and malformed buds and fruit. On okra and bean pods, the damage appears as pimples or wart-like growths. On tomatoes and peppers, white marks, often resembling halos, appear on the fruit. On pecans and beans, the damage shows up as brown spots on the nutmeat or seed. On some tree fruit, stink bugs can cause a deforming condition called cat facing on the fruit.

May 1, 2009 444-621
Striped Cucumber Beetle Feb 25, 2014 ENTO-61NP
Tarnished Plant Bug Apr 25, 2011 3104-1568
Thrips
Adult thrips are small, pale-yellow insects (occasionally black) with elongated bodies, and fringed wings.

Life Cycle

Their life cycle consists of an egg, nymph, pre-pupa, pupa and an adult. The exact time required for thrips to complete their life cycle varies with species, temperature and the host plant. Western flower thrips complete their life cycle, from egg to adult, in approximately 10 days at 80° F. Adults insert eggs in leaf tissue which hatch in approximately three days. Nymphs feed for four to five days and then drop from the plant to pupate in the soil. Adults emerge after two days of pupation and begin feeding.
May 1, 2009 444-281
Tulip Tree Leaf Miner (Sassafras Weevil)

Rice-shaped holes about 1/16 inches result from adult feeding. Larval feeding forms mines, usually two per leaf. If they are both on the same side of midrib, one is extensive, and the other dwarfed. If the insect lays eggs on opposite sides of the midrib, both mines develop normally.

May 1, 2009 444-279
Twig Girdler/Twig Pruner

In the larval stage, both the twig girdler and twig pruner are creamy white in color and up to 2 inches in length. They look like typical roundheaded borers in that their heads and bodies are cylindrical in shape and they have legs that are reduced to very small claws. The adult twig girdler is about 5/8 inch long and has a pair of long antennae. The color is brown with irregular patches of fine gray hairs and the antennae are spines on the segments closest to the head.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1423
Vegetable Weevil Apr 25, 2011 3104-1569
Velvet Ants Oct 9, 2012 ENTO-22NP
Virginia Pine Sawfly

Adults resemble flies yet have four wings instead of two.
Small white oval eggs are inserted into the edge of needles at equally spaced
intervals, but in only one needle fascicle. Newly hatched larvae are pale
green, with black head capsules, and are 3 mm long. Full grown larvae are
spotted or marked with longitudinal black stripes and are from 16 to 23 mm
long. Cocoons for pupation are spun in the litter or soil surface under the
trees.

Nov 20, 2009 2911-1424
Wax Scale

Homoptera: Coccidae, Ceroplastes ceriferus

Plants Attacked

Wax scale has well over 50 hosts, especially Japanese and Chinese hollies, pyracantha, spirea, ivy, hemlock, euonymus, and boxwood.

Description of Damage

Infestations seldom kill plants directly, but seriously weaken them, reduce growth, and cause decline. Deposits of honeydew give rise to rampant growth of the black sooty mold fungus, particularly on burford and Chinese holly.

May 1, 2009 444-622
Wheel Bug - Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Arilus cristatus May 13, 2011 3104-1585
White Grubs in Vegetable Gardens Apr 25, 2011 3104-1570
White Pine Weevil

Distribution and Hosts

The white pine weevil (WPW) is found throughout Virginia. Its preferred hosts are eastern white pine and Norway spruce, but it can attack Scotch and other pines as well.

Description of Damage

The WPW usually attacks only the upright terminal leader. The previous year¹s leader (first whorl) and the new growth both die from the attack. Damage is first evident in March or early April when overwintering females chew holes in the leader for feeding and egg laying. These holes, eight inches to ten inches below the terminal bud, produce resinous bleeding that eventually dries to a white crust. By late May or early June, the larval damage is evident as the current year¹s leader droops like a shepherds crook, turns pale yellow and then brown. In July, the attacked shoot will have 1/8-inch diameter exit holes and tunnels and sawdust under the bark. A lateral shoot will eventually take over as the terminal leader but may have to be trained and have competing shoots removed. Trees of medium size, four feet to 40 feet, are most commonly attacked. WPW is a serious pest of forest plantations, Christmas tree farms, yard plantings, and landscapes.
May 1, 2009 444-270
Whiteflies
Whiteflies are white insects with pale yellow bodies that are approximately 2 mm long. They belong to the order Homoptera and are close relatives of aphids, scales, mealybugs, hoppers and cicadas.

Life Cycle

The life cycle consists of an egg, 4 nymphal instars, a pupal and an adult stage. Depending on the species and environmental conditions, eggs require 10-12 days to hatch, and completion of life cycle from egg to adult takes 30-40 days. Nymphal instars behave in a manner similar to scale insects. The first nymphal instars are active and they are sometimes called crawlers. The remaining nymphal instars are sedentary and may mimic immature scales.
May 1, 2009 444-280
Whitefringed Beetles Apr 25, 2011 3104-1571
Wolf Spider - Araneae: Lycosidae May 13, 2011 3104-1586
Yellow Ant - Hymenoptera: Formicidae May 13, 2011 3104-1587
Yellowjackets Sep 26, 2013 ENTO-49NP