ID

424-001

Authors as Published

Conducted and summarized by the following Virginia Tech employees: Dr. Daniel E. Brann, Extension Agronomist, Grains; Dr. Carl Griffey, Small Grains Breeder; Mr. Harry Behl, Agricultural Supervisor; Ms. Elizabeth Rucker and Mr. Tom Pridgen, Research Associates.

Table of Contents

  Recommendations

  Commercial Barley Entries

  Commercial Wheat Entries

  Introduction

  Barley Varieties

  Summary of Barley Management Practices for 1998 Harvest Season

  Wheat Varieties

  Summary of Wheat Management Practices for 1997 Harvest Season

  Wheat Planted No-Till Into Corn Stubble

  Evaluation of Eleven Wheat Varieties

  Milling and Baking Quality

  Table 1. Yield performance of entries in Virginia Tech Barley Test, 1998.

  Table 2. Two year avg. yield perf. of entries in the VT Barley Tests, 1997 & 1998.

  Table 3. Three yr. avg. yield perf. of entries in the VT Barley Tests, 1996, 97, & 98.

  Table 4. Summary of perf. of entries in the Virginia Tech Barley Test, 1998.

  Table 5. Yield perf. of entries in the Virginia Tech Wheat Test, 1998.

  Table 6. 2 year avg. yield perf. of entries in the Virginia State Wheat Test, 1997 & 98.

  Table 7. 3 yr. avg. yield perf. of entries in the Virginia State Wheat Tests, 1996, 97 & 98.

  Table 8. Summary of perf. of entries in the Virginia Tech Wheat Test, 1998.

  Table 9. Summary of perf. of entries in the Virginia Tech No-Till Wheat Test, 1998 harvest

  Table 10. Yield of 11 wheat varieties/lines planted in 1997, harvested in 1998

  Table 11. Test weight of 11 wheat varieties/lines planted in 1997, harvested in 1998

  Table 12. Heading date of 11 wheat varieties/lines planted in 1997, harvested in 1998

  Table 13. Height of 11 wheat varieties/lines planted in 1997, harvested in 1998

  Table 14. Lodging of 11 wheat varieties/lines planted in 1997 and harvested in 1998

  Table 15. Milling & baking quality of entries in VT Wheat Test based on evaluations of the 1997 crop.



The following are the small grain variety recommendations for Virginia in 1998. The recommendations are based on the agronomic performance in barley and wheat tests conducted by the Research and Extension Divisions of Virginia Tech in the various agricultural regions of the state.


SMALL GRAIN VARIETIES RECOMMENDED
Arranged in Order of Maturity
COASTAL PLAINPIEDMONTWEST OF BLUE RIDGE
 South of James RiverNorth of James River 
Barley
CallaosbCallaoCallaoCallao
NominiaNominiNominiNomini
StarlingaStarlingStarlingStarling
Wheat
Pioneer Brand 2691Pioneer Brand 2691Pioneer Brand 2691Pioneer Brand 2691
PocahontasPocahontasPocahontasPocahontas
Pioneer Brand 2684Pioneer Brand 2684Pioneer Brand 2684Pioneer Brand 2684
Pioneer Brand 2580Pioneer Brand 2580Pioneer Brand 2580Pioneer Brand 2580
NK Coker 9803NK Coker 9803NK Coker 9803NK Coker 9803
MadisonMadisonMadisonMadison
FFR 523WFFR 523WFFR 523WFFR 523W
Pioneer Brand 2643Pioneer Brand 2643Pioneer Brand 2643----------
NK-Coker 9835NK-Coker 9835--------------------
Featherstone 520Featherstone 520Featherstone 520Featherstone 520
USG 3408USG 3408USG 3408USG 3408
RoaneRoaneRoaneRoane
JacksonJacksonJacksonJackson
NK Coker 9663NK Coker 9663NK Coker 9663NK Coker 9663
FFR 555WFFR 555WFFR 555WFFR 555W
AgriPro FosterAgriPro FosterAgriPro FosterAgriPro Foster

a Awnleted (no beards).

sb Short beards.

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COMMERCIAL BARLEY ENTRIES

Virginia Tech and Virginia Crop Improvement Association, 9142 Atlee Station Road, Mechanicsville, VA 23111 - Callao, Nomini, and Starling.

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COMMERCIAL WHEAT ENTRIES

Ag-Chem, Inc., PO Box 2178, Salisbury, MD 21802-2178 - DynaGro 422, DynaGro 424, and DynaGro 426.

Agripro Seeds, Inc., PO Box 2962, Shawnee Mission, KS 66201-1362 - AgriPro Foster, AgriPro Mason, AgriPro Patton, and AgriPro Shelby.

University of Arkansas, Dept. of Agronomy, 115 Plant Science, Fayetteville, AR 72701 - Jaypee.

Clemson University, 277 Poole Ag. Center Box 340359, Clemson, SC 29634 - Clemson 201.

Featherstone Seed Company, 13941 Genito Road, Amelia, VA 23002 - Featherstone 520.

University of Georgia, GA Station, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, GA 30223 - Fleming, Roberts.

Hoffman Seeds, Inc., 144 Main Street, Landisville, PA 17538 - Hoffman 14, Hoffman 37, Hoffman 57, and Hoffman 95.

Monsanto (HybriTech), 6075 Westbrooke Drive, Salisbury, MD 21801 - Quantum 706, Quantum 708, and Quantum 7203.

Novartis Seeds, Inc., Box 340, Hartsville, SC 29550 - NK Coker 9134, NK Coker 9663, NK Coker 9704, NK Coker 9803, and NK Coker 9835.

Pioneer Hibred International, Inc., Eastern Division, Tipton, IN 47072 - Pioneer Brand 2580, Pioneer Brand 2643, Pioneer Brand 2684, and Pioneer Brand 2691.

Resource Seeds, Inc., 2355 Rice Pike, Union, KY 41091 - Trical 498 (triticale).

Southern States Cooperative, PO Box 26234, Richmond, VA 23260 - FFR 502W, FFR 518W, FFR 522W, FFR 523W, FFR 555W, and FFR 566W.

Stine Seed Company, Inc., PO Box 231, Sheridan, IN - Stine 455, Stine 480, Stine 481, and Stine 488.

Uni-South Genetics, 2640-C Nolensville Road, Nashville, TN 37211 - USG 3408.

Virginia Tech and Virginia Crop Improvement Association, 9142 Atlee Station Road, Mechanicsville, VA 23111 - Massey, Madison, Jackson, Pocahontas, and Roane.

Appreciation is expressed to the Virginia Small Grains Check-Off Program for financial support of this research and the Virginia Extension variety evaluation program.

Conducted and summarized by the following Virginia Tech employees: Dr. Daniel E. Brann, Extension Agronomist, Grains; Dr. Carl Griffey, Small Grains Breeder; Mr. Harry Behl, Agricultural Supervisor; Ms. Elizabeth Rucker and Mr. Tom Pridgen, Research Associates.

Location Supervisors: Mr. Tom Custis (Painter); Mr. Bobby Ashburn (Holland); Mr. Mark Vaughn, Mr. Bill Sisson, and Mr. Lin Barrack (Warsaw); Mr. Bill Wilkinson III and Mr. Bud Wilmouth (Blackstone); Dr. Carl Griffey and Mr. Tom Pridgen (Blacksburg); Mr. Bobby Clark, Mr. Tom Stanley, and the Mathias Brothers (Shenandoah); Mr. David Starner and Mr. Denton Dixon (Orange).

fig1.gif

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INTRODUCTION

The included tables present results from barley and wheat varietal tests conducted in Virginia in 1997-98. Yield data are given for individual locations; yield and other performance characteristics are averaged over the number of locations indicated. Performance of a given variety often varies widely over locations and years which makes multiple location-year averages a more valid indication of expected performance than data from a single year or location. All tests in 1997-98 were grown in seven-inch rows planted at 22 seeds per row foot with the exception of Blacksburg and Warsaw which were grown in six-inch rows at 22 seeds per row foot. The plots were trimmed during the winter to 9 feet in length. Details about management practices for barley and wheat are included in the bulletin. The only herbicide used at most locations was Harmony Extra®.

Appreciation is expressed to Ag-Chem, Inc., AgriPro Seeds, Inc., Featherstone Seed Co., Hoffman Seeds, Inc., Monsanto Company, Novartis Seeds, Inc., Pioneer Hibred International, Inc., Resource Seeds, Inc., Southern States Cooperative, Stine Seed Company, Inc., Virginia Crop Improvement Association and the Virginia Small Grains Check-Off Board for their financial support of the small grains variety testing program at Virginia Tech.

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BARLEY VARIETIES

Virginia's climate makes it possible to produce 110+ bu/acre field yields of well-managed barley most seasons. The better barley varieties entered in Virginia Tech tests have averaged above 110 bu/acre over five locations over three years. So what?! At the prices paid at harvest in 1998 many farmers will not plant barley this fall!

Barley is considered good feed for horses, dairy animals, beef, sheep, and some laying hens. The problem is that these industries in Virginia use only limited quantities of barley. Profitable barley production on more than 50,000 acres in Virginia is going to require revived international market opportunities and/or development of barley varieties that the poultry and swine feeders want to buy. International markets will improve sometime, but they may not be much better by June of 1999. When the international market does improve, we will need high test weight varieties to participate. Dr. Carl Griffey, Virginia Tech’s small grains breeder, has developed higher test weight barley lines that stand better than Callao, and he is trying to put the poultry and swine industries back in the barley buying mode by developing hulless barley varieties. We have not given up on barley, but we have recognized the brick wall of low prices. We are exploring alternative routes to barley success.

The importance of Virginia's barley breeding program to the state and region is evident in the yield results. Note that four of the top five entries are Virginia Tech lines that were advanced to the state test for the first time in 1996, have excellent test weight, varying maturity and generally stand better than Callao. The breeding program is preparing for the time when international markets return.

Nomini and Starling continue to perform well and have good but not excellent test weight. Nomini is earlier than average whereas Starling is later than average. Callao has EXCELLENT test weight, was the top variety in the 1998 results and the multiple year averages. The test weight of Callao averaged 48.1 lbs/bu in 1998, and 53.7 lbs/bu in 1997. Callao is early, short, and has good barley yellow dwarf tolerance. It has short beards similar to Boone that generally come off easily during harvest. The major negative characteristic of Callao is its tendancy to lodge if fertilized to develop high yields. Callao has similar standability to Boone. The use of the plant growth regulator Cerone® and intensive management should be a part of the decision to grow Callao.

Starling is similar to Nomini in yield, but has less than average test weight. Starling is susceptible to net blotch, but generally has the best disease resistance and "stay green" available in any barley. Starling is about three days later than Nomini, and thus should make an excellent companion barley for those wishing to grow barley for silage. It is recommended statewide, but will likely show its maximum benefit in the piedmont and mountainous areas. Seed of Nomini, Callao, and Starling barley should be available to producers in adequate quantities.

The standability of all released barley varieties is greatly improved with the application of Cerone®. Consideration of Cerone® application is recommended when all current barley varieties are fertilized to develop in excess of 100 bu/acre yields. Close cooperation between the barley breeding programs in Virginia and North Carolina and greater communication with current and potential barley markets can hopefully develop a bright future for a premium quality feed grain.

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Summary of Barley Management Practices for the 1998 Harvest Season

Blacksburg - Planted October 6, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 25 lbs N, 60 lbs P2O5, and 90 lbs K2O applied October 3, 1997. Harmony Extra® was applied at 0.5 oz on March 27, 1998 with 60-0-0-7. Harvest occurred on June 16, 1998.

Blackstone - Planted October 24, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 500 lbs 5-10-10 and 1 ton lime on September 29, 1997. Forty lbs N was applied February 11, 1998 with 0.5 oz Harmony Extra®. Seventy-five lbs N was applied March 27, 1998. One pt Lannate® with 4 oz Tilt® was applied April 8, 1998 for control of cereal leaf beetle Harvest occurred on June 16-17, 1998.

Holland - Planted November 5, 1997. One ton lime was applied October 2, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 500 lbs 5-15-20 October 29, 1997. On January 22, 1998 60 units of N + 0.33 oz Harmony Extra® was applied. Forty units N was applied March 16, 1998. Harvest did not occur.

Painter - Planted October 31, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 500 lbs/A 5-10-10 October 30, 1997. Ninety lbs N using 30%and 0.5 oz Harmony Extra® were applied March 3, 1998. Harvest occurred on June 18-19, 1998.

Warsaw - Planted October 22, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 30 lbs N, 80 lbs P2O5, and 120 lbs K2O applied October 8, 1997. Sixty lbs N was applied February 10, 1998. One pt Bucktril® was applied March 4, 1998. Fifty lbs N was applied March 25, 1998. Two oz of Karate® were applied April 25, 1998 for control of cereal leaf beetle. Harvest occurred June 8, 1998.

Orange - Planted October 9, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 25-50-60 applied September 8, 1997. Sixty lbs N were applied March 27, 1998. Harvest occurred on June 9, 1998.

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WHEAT VARIETIES

The 1997-98 growing season was the worst for wheat that I have experienced in over two decades at Virginia Tech. It rained too much during the winter through early June and some fields were hurt by a severe freeze on March 10th. Portions of fields "drowned ". Root diseases like "take all", leaf diseases, and head diseases such as scab were terrible in untreated fields and certain rotations. Implementation of intensive wheat management principles resulted in increased yields but not the high yields traditionally obtained. The only good news is that this challenging season gave us an opportunity to evaluate differences in disease resistance among varieties. Ratings were made for leaf rust, powdery mildew, tan spot, septoria, and scab. The scab and tan spot ratings were done on a test that was no-tilled into corn grain residue.

Virginia Tech’s wheat breeding program continues to be successful as shown by nine of the top fifteen entries being varieties or lines from the program. The Virginia Tech line VA 94-52-60 was the top yielding wheat over both two and three year averages. However, it was surpassed by several newer Virginia Tech lines in 1998.

Before discussing the results of specific varieties it is necessary to take seed treatment used on the varieties into consideration. Entries in this test have different seed treatments that may greatly impact performance. Seed treatments are indicated by an acronym in parentheses following the name. For example, Agripro Patton (RG) indicates that this entry was treated with Raxil and Gaucho. "A" is Apron, "B" is Baytan, "C" is Captan, "D" is Dividend, "G" is Gaucho, "R" is Raxil, "T" is Thiram, and "V" is Vitavax. No seed treatment was used on Virginia Tech experimental lines nor on some of the public varieties such as Madison and Roane.

Roane, Virginia Tech’s newest release, has the highest three-year five-location average for released varieties with 80 bu/acre. Roane has excellent disease resistance as shown by its superior yields at Painter in 1998 and the ratings in Table 8. Roane has excellent test weight, average height, and good standability. It is about the same maturity as Jackson and FFR 555. Seed of this variety will be available to seedsmen in the fall of 1998 and for general production in the fall of 1999.

Pocahontas (RT), a relatively new Virginia Tech release, was a top yielder in 1998. In 1997, however, it produced only moderate yields due at least in part to its susceptibility to wheat spindle streak and barley yellow dwarf virus. Pocahontas has good resistance to powdery mildew and septoria which were major problems in 1998. Pocahontas may be an especially good variety to plant in the second half of the planting season considering the above research experience and the results from a date of planting study in 1998. Pocahontas is early, has excellent test weight, is shorter than average, and has good standability. Seed will be available in limited quantities for fall of 1998.

Another top-yielding variety in the 1998 test was AgriPro Patton. This new variety was tested with Baytan-Captan (BC) and with Raxil- Gaucho (RG) seed treatments. Seed treatment with Gaucho may have been a significant advantage since the RG-treated seed averaged 84 bu/acre compared to 78 bu/acre for the BC-treated seed. Patton is of medium maturity, stands well, yields well and has excellent resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust. Patton will be available to seedsmen in the fall of 1998 with certified seed available by fall of 1999.

The new generation of hybrid wheat was entered in the tests for the first time. Monsanto entered Quantum 706 (R), Quantum 708 (R), and Quantum 7203 (R). All three hybrids yielded quite well at all locations. The statewide average yield of the Quantums ranged from 77 bu/acre for 708 to 79 bu/acre for 706 and 7203. The hybrid wheats were equal to the best varieties in these tests. All three hybrids are taller than average, have excellent standability and good test weight.

Pioneer Brand 2580 (B), Jackson, Dyna-Gro 424, FFR 518W, and Coker 9663 are among the top varieties averaging 73-76 bu/acre over years and locations. Pioneer Brand 2580 has excellent standability, and moderate test weight. Jackson has excellent test weight and moderate standability. Dyna-Gro 424 is later than average, taller than average, and has less than average test weight. FFR 518W is a new release by FFR that has performed well for two years especially in the Coastal Plains area of the state. FFR 518W is early, relatively short, of average test weight, and lodges more than average. Coker 9663 has excellent test weight, is susceptible to powdery mildew and is taller than average. In 1998, Coker 9663 performed much better in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Region than in the Coastal Plain Region.

Varieties that continue to be in the top half of all entries and yield at the state average or above include AgriPro Mason (B), Pioneer Brand 2684 (B), FFR 555W (B), Madison, AgriPro Foster (B), Coker 9134 (B), Pioneer Brand 2643 (B), USG 3408 and Hoffman 95 (R).

Refer to Tables 5 and 8 for performance of other varieties that were not in the top-yielding group. These data are as important in deciding which varieties not to grow.

Variety performance is a combination of genetics, environment, and management. All of these tests were planted at 22 seeds/row foot. Some varieties such as Pioneer Brand 2643 may yield more at higher than 22 seeds/row foot. Other varieties may perform better under no-till conditions. For these and other reasons, a wheat variety test was planted no-till into corn stubble near Warsaw last fall. Results of this test will be discussed separately.

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SUMMARY OF WHEAT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE 1997 HARVEST SEASON

Blacksburg - Planted October 7, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 25 lbs N, 60 lbs P2O5, and 90 lbs K2O applied October 3, 1997. Harmony Extra® was applied at 0.5 oz on March 7, 1997 with 60-0-0-7. Harvest occurred on July 1, 1998.

Warsaw - Planted October 22, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 30 lbs N, 80 lbs P2O5, and 120 lbs K2O applied October 8, 1998. Sixty lbs N were applied February 10, 1998. One pt Buctril® was applied March 4, 1998. Sixty lbs N was applied March 25, 1998. Two oz of Karate® were applied April 25, 1998 for control of cereal leaf beetle. Harvest occurred June 18, 1998.

Painter - Planted October 31, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 500 lbs/A 5-10-10 October 30, 1997. Ninety lbs N using 30%and 0.5 oz Harmony Extra® were applied March 3, 1998. Harvest occurred on June 18-19, 1998.

Holland -Planted November 5, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 500 lbs 5-15-20 + 1000 lb lime October 29, 1997. On January 22, 1998 60 units of N + 0.33 oz Harmony Extra® was applied. Sixty units N was applied March 16, 1998. Karate® was applied April 13, 1998 at 2.5 oz. Harvest occurred June 26, 1998.

Blackstone - Planted October 24, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 500 lbs 5-10-10 and 1 ton lime on September 29, 1997. Forty lbs N were applied February 11, 1998 with 0.5 oz Harmony Extra®. Seventy-five lbs N were applied March 27, 1998. One pt Lannate® + 4 oz Tilt® were applied April 8, 1998 for control of cereal leaf beetle. Harvest occurred on June 16, 1998.

Orange - Planted October 9, 1997. Preplant fertilizer was 25-50-60 applied September 8, 1997. Harmony® at 0.5 oz was applied December 3, 1997. Sixty lbs N were applied March 27, 1998. Harvest occurred on June 24-25, 1998.

Shenandoah - Planted October 22, 1997. Forty lbs N + 0.6 oz Harmony Extra® were applied February 22, 1998. Sixty lbs N were applied April 4, 1998. Harvest occurred July 2, 1998.

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WHEAT PLANTED NO-TILL INTO CORN STUBBLE

Seventy-six varieties/lines of wheat were planted no-till into corn grain stubble with a Hege plot drill at 30 seeds/row foot on October 27, 1997. Fall fertilizer of 30-80-120 was applied preplant followed by 30 lb nitrogen on January 1, 30 lb March 13, and 60 lb March 31. Leaf disease and scab ratings were made. Scab ratings were made by evaluating 50 heads for disease. Wheat yields were much lower in the no-till test than in other tests conducted at the Warsaw research station in 1998. Scab was the major problem reducing yields.

The same varieties were among the top yielders in the no-till and conventionally tilled variety tests. Ratings of scab incidence showed that the top five yielding varieties had less than 40% scab incidence. In contrast, the lower- yielding varieties in the test generally had above 50% scab incidence with incidence as high as 77%. Several of the lower-yielding varieties in the no-till test have produced good yields over years in conventionally tilled Virginia Tech tests.

Scab incidence and severity on wheat is dependent on rainfall at the flowering stage. Scab incidence results among varieties may vary over years. The results this year show varieties with high scab incidence from the early Pioneer Brand 2684 which headed April 25th to AgriPro Shelby which headed six days later. The top-yielding low scab- diseased varieties were heading and flowering at the same time as the varieties with high scab incidence and low yields.

Further research is needed before varieties can be confidently rated relative to degree of scab resistance. The ratings will need to consider initial infection sites on the wheat head as well as the degree of damage done to the total head.

Further research is planned for next season.

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EVALUATION OF ELEVEN WHEAT VARIETIES/LINES PLANTED EARLY, ON TIME, AND LATE

One of the problems with dropping barley from the cropping system is the challenge to get even more extensive wheat acreage planted and harvested timely. Wheat varieties that can be planted earlier than optimum and varieties that can be planted later than optimum need to be identified. A cooperative Virginia Tech and N.C. State study was initiated in 1997-98 to help Virginia and North Carolina farmers with variety/planting date information. One of the goals of this study was to identify wheat varieties that are day-length sensitive and/or have a long vernalization period. Day-length sensitive varieties can be planted early, but even in a warm winter they would not joint before the longer days of March. The second major objective was to identify wheat varieties that would grow rapidly and produce good yields when planted late.

Wheat varieties included were Coker 9663, Coker 9704, Coker 9835, Pioneer 2684, Pioneer 2691, Pocahontas, Roane, and Quantum 7203. Plots were planted three weeks before the average first frost, about the time of the first frost, and six weeks after the average first frost. A northern adapted Pioneer variety, two Virginia lines and Callao barley were included for comparison. Plots were planted by Drs. Randy Weisz and Paul Murphy at Kinston, North Carolina, and by Carl Griffey and me at Warsaw, Virginia. This was a good year to initiate the study. At Warsaw we had an extremely warm February which resulted in early planted wheat being over 15 inches tall with the head at least 6 inches above ground by the first of March. The temperature dipped to less than 18 degrees on March 12. The first date of planting (October 2) resulted in the primary tillers on MOST varieties being killed. There was little to no damage to any of the eleven varieties from the timely planting date of October 24, and no freeze damage on March 12 to the December 2 planting.

As mentioned, the October 2 planting date is about three weeks before the average first frost. The March freeze damaged all 11 lines or varieties but generally caused more damage to very early varieties such as Pioneer 2691, and to the early Virginia Tech line. Extremely early wheat varieties that are not day-length sensitive should not be planted early. Full season varieties that have a long vernalization requirement such as the new Virginia Tech variety "Roane" MAY BE a good choice when planting earlier than optimum. Other varieties that yielded well when planted early were Pocahontas (a new Virginia Tech release), and Quantum 7203. Callao barley planted October 2nd had significant tillers damaged but barley generally tillers more than wheat so later tillers quickly replaced the primary tillers. As important, or more important, than variety selection for early planting is the choice of seed treatment. Powdery mildew pressure was so bad with the first planting date with most varieties that the plots had to be sprayed in October with Bayleton. The other concern with extremely early wheat planting is Hessian fly, aphids, and other insects. Insect pests were controlled with Gaucho seed treatment in this test. The cost of Gaucho may limit its use to situations where extremely early planting is considered essential. Also, Bayleton seed treatment to control fall infection by powdery mildew would be an excellent choice on most wheat varieties when planting extremely early.

Timely planting (October 24) resulted in an average yield of 74 bu/acre compared to 65 bu/acre when planted early and 44 bu/acre when planted December 2. It should, however, be remembered that the early planted was protected against insects and required at least one additional spray for disease control.

Pocahontas, Roane, and Quantum 7203 were among the top five varieties at each planting date. The very early Pioneer 2691 was among the lowest in yield when planted early and among the highest when planted late. Refer to Table 10 for detailed data.

More work is needed before many conclusions are drawn from these data and the results from Kinston need to be more fully incorporated into the discussion. I believe, however, that the first step toward longer planting seasons on the early side is to re-invent a market for barley.

Carl Griffey at Virginia Tech is developing hulless barley lines for feed and for human consumption. Hulless barley should make excellent swine and poultry feed. We need the market provided by the vertically integrated livestock industry for our small grains. Hopefully, hulless barley will be a part of our future.

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MILLING AND BAKING QUALITY

The milling and baking quality data presented here and in Table 15 represent data from four Virginia locations for a single year and, therefore, should not be used as a definitive measure of a given cultivar’s milling and baking quality. Because quality of a given cultivar can vary from location to location and between years, data over years and locations is needed to accurately define quality of a given cultivar.

Wheat samples from entries grown in the 1996-97 Virginia Tech Test at four locations (Blacksburg, Loudoun, Painter, and Warsaw, VA) were evaluated for milling and baking quality at the USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory in Wooster, Ohio. Quality was assessed for each entry by location using 50 gram samples that were milled with a Quadrumat mill. Quality data averaged over the four locations (Over-Location Analyses) are presented in Table 15. In addition, quality data were obtained from analyses of 2000 gram composite samples (Composite Analyses), which consisted of 500 grams from each of the four locations.

Milling and baking quality of the entries were compared with the local check cultivar Madison, which was selected as the standard. Madison ranks 60th among a total of 179 modern wheat lines evaluated for milling quality by the USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Lab. Therefore, Madison is a fairly stringent standard as it ranks among the top 33% of lines for milling quality.

As expected, milling quality scores were fairly consistent across locations and therefore, differences were primarily due to variety effect rather than environment. Baking quality scores were uniformly higher for entries from Loudoun, and often were higher for entries from Blacksburg, than those from Painter and Warsaw. Entries from Loudoun and Blacksburg generally produced softer flour with lower water absorption, and those from Painter and Warsaw generally had higher protein content.

In the "Over-Location Analyses", maximum, minimum, and mean milling quality scores were 104.3, 88.7, and 94.4, respectively, compared with 99.4 for Madison. Only four entries surpassed Madison in milling score; these were FFR 555W, Foster, Dyna-Gro 422, and KY 86C-61-8. Baking quality scores varied from 81.4 to 104.9 with a mean of 94. Fifteen entries had baking quality scores that were equal to or higher than Madison at 97.8.

For the "Composite Analyses", milling scores ranged from 70.1 to 108.6 with a mean of 89.7 compared with 99.9 for Madison. Eight lines surpassed Madison for milling score. Baking scores varied from 43.3 to 105.7 with a mean of 73.6 compared to 100 for Madison. Only two lines surpassed Madison for baking quality.

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Appreciation is expressed to the Virginia Small Grains Check-Off Program for financial support of this research and the Virginia Extension variety evaluation program.

Location Supervisors. Mr. Tom Custis (Painter); Mr. Bobby Ashburn (Holland); Mr. Mark Vaughn, Mr. Bill Sisson, and Mr. Lynn Barrack (Warsaw); Mr. Bill Wilkinson III and Mr. Bud Wilmouth (Blackstone); Dr. Carl Griffey and Mr. Tom Pridgen (Blacksburg); Mr. Bobby Clark and The Mathias Brothers (Shenandoah); Mr. David Starner and Mr. Denton Dixon (Orange).


Reviewed by Wade Thomason, Extension Specialist, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences


Virginia Cooperative Extension materials are available for public use, reprint, or citation without further permission, provided the use includes credit to the author and to Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, and Virginia State University.

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Edwin J. Jones, Director, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg; M. Ray McKinnie, Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State University, Petersburg.

Publication Date

May 1, 2009